A Creek Indian Bibliography:

The Muscogee (Creek) Nation:

Sources for History, Biography and Genealogy;
Print and Internet Links
©Anne E. Gometz
Section 1: Begin Here
Section 2: Secondary Sources
Section 3: Primary Sources
Section 4: Biography
Section 5: Genealogy
Section 6: Finding Pictures
Section 7: Further Research

Section 4: Biography.....

This section contains biographical material on Creeks. Biographies of others who were important in Creek history, e. g. Benjamin Hawkins, are listed as "Secondary Sources."

Part I. Individuals and Families --- Part II. Collective Biography

Spelling of names differs greatly from one source or reference to another! Check carefully for variants.

Part I. Individuals and Families

Alphabetically: B-C-D-F-G-H-I-L-M-P-O-R-S-W


Barnett, Jackson

THORNE, Tanis C. The World's Richest Indian: The Scandal over Jackson Barnett's Oil Fortune. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Oil was discovered on Barnett's property in 1912. This account describes the feeding frenzy that followed.

See also Fixico, Donald L. in Secondary Sources.

Beaver, Fred aka Eka La Nee

Fred Beaver in Art in Embassies, U. S. Department of State. 1911-1980.

"Fred Beaver," p. 164-168, Song from the Earth: American Indian Painting, by Jamake Highwater. Boston, Mass." New York Graphic Society, 1976.

Blue Eagle, Acee aka Alexander C. McIntosh aka Che Bon Ah Bula

"Acee Blue Eagle...". Online at http://okgenweb.net/pioneer/ohs/blueeagle1.htm . A short sketch with citations from the Indian Pioneer History Project.

Blue Eagle, Acee (1907-1959), Papers and Artwork," Finding aid for "Mary Constance Kloss collection of Acee Blue Eagle papers and artwork" and Finding aid for "Acee Blue Eagle papers." Both in the National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian.

Deskins, Earl. "Acee Blue Eagle and His Native Art." Design, v. 41, no. 8 (April 1941), pp. 8-10, 22.

Elder, Tamara Liegerot. Lumhee Holot-Tee : the Art and Life of Acee Blue Eagle. Edmond, Okla.: Medicine Wheel Press, 2006.

Kelly, Michael. "Acee Blue Eagle: Native American Artist and Much More.". First published in Collector Glass News, issue 13 (1991) and reprinted in Antique Trader, v. 35, no. 34, Aug. 21, 1991, pp. 80-82. A detailed biographical account, in this newsletter because the artist's work appeared on some decorated glasses.

Bosomworth, Mary see Musgrove, Mary

Brown, Samuel W. Jr.

Foreman, Carolyn T. "Samuel William Brown Jr." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 37 (1959/60), pp. 492-495.

Russell, Orpha B. "Notes on Samuel William Brown Jr., Yuchi Chief." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 37 (1959/60), pp. 497-501.

Brown, Samuel W. Sr.

Foreman, Carolyn T. "Samuel W. Brown Sr., Chief of the Yuchi Tribe." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 37 (1959/60), pp. 485-492. Immediately follows her article on the Yuchi, see Secondary resources.

Bruner, William G.

Russell, Orpha B. "William G. Bruner, Member of the House of Kings, Creek Nation." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 30 (1952/53), pp. 397-407.


Callahan, S. Alice

"S. Alice Callahan, January 1,1868- January 7, 1894." Dictionary of Native American Literature. New York: Garland, 1994. p. 221-223. Author of one of the earliest novels by a Native American woman.

Foreman, Carolyn Thomas. �S.Alice Callahan.� Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 33 (1955): 306� 15, 549.

Ruoff, A.LaVonne Brown. �Justice for Indians and Women: The Protest Fiction of Alice Callahan and Pauline Johnson.� IN World Literature Today, v. 66, issue 2 (Spring 1992), p. 249�55.

Checote, Samuel

Lambert, O. A. "Historical Sketch of Col. Samuel Checote, Once Chief of the Creek Nation." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 4 (1926), pp. 275-80.

Meserve, John B. "Chief Samuel Checote, with Sketches of Chief Locher Harjo and Ward Coachman." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 16 (1938), p. 401-409.

Coosaponakeesa see Musgrove, Mary

Crazy Snake see Harjo, Chitto

Cussins, Mary

Slappey, Deanna M. "Mary Cussins, Mother of Tensaw Settlement Survivors Margaret (Dyer) Powell and Martha (Dyer) Weatherford." National Genealogical Society Quarterly, v. 99, no. 1 (March 2011), pp.43-58. This detailed study of Mary's life and family includes two contemporary accounts of the Fort Mims attack, an article from the Charleston City Gazette, 1 Oct 1813 and a long letter from Harry Toulmin published in the Baltimore Patriot, 13 Oct 1813.


Davis, John

Faught, Jerry L, II. "John Davis and Joseph Islands: Indigenous Missionaries among the Creeks in Indian Territory." Baptist History and Heritage, v. 43, no. 2 (Spring 2008), pp. 32-43. Online at https://www.thefreelibrary.com/John%20Davis%20and%20Joseph%20Islands:%20indigenous%20missionaries%20among%20the...-a0184132771. Davis died 1840.

"John Davis." IN Muskogee and Northeastern Oklahoma... by John D. Benedict, Chicago, S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1922, v. 1, pp. 177. One paragraph.

Dyer, Mary Cussins see Cussins, Mary


Foerster, Jennifer Elise

Jennifer Elise Foerster. Poet.

Francis, Josiah see Hillis Harjo

Francis, Milly

Cox, Dale. Milly Francis: The Life & Times of the Creek Pocahontas. Bascom, Florida: Old Kitchen Books, 2013. Available online at Academia.edu.


Gibson, Charles

"Charles Gibson." IN Muskogee and Northeastern Oklahoma... by John D. Benedict, Chicago, S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1922, v. 1, pp. 499.

Grayson Family

Saunt, Claudio. Black, White, and Indian: Race and the Unmaking of an American Family. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. The story of a family, the descendants of Robert Grierson, a Scots trader, and Sinnugee of the Creek nation, who became the Graysons, prominent in Creek history for many years. This family was multiracial -- European, Indian, and African -- and their story illustrates the "centrality of race" in the tribe's history. One reviewer describes this work as "enlightening, disturbing" and it is in its unsparing depiction of how racism overcame ties of blood and family.

____. "The Graysons' Dilemma." IN Powhatan's Mantle: Indians in the Colonial Southeast, rev. and expanded ed., ed. by Gregory Waselkov. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 2006. This essay did not appear in the first editon.

Grayson, George Washington

Baird, W. David, ed. A Creek Warrior for the Confederacy: the Autobiography of Chief G. W. Grayson. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.

"George W. Grayson." IN Muskogee and Northeastern Oklahoma... by John D. Benedict, Chicago, S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1922, v. 1, pp. 496, 499. [3 paragraphs]

Grayson, Washington

"Washington Grayson." IN Muskogee and Northeastern Oklahoma... by John D. Benedict, Chicago, S. J. Clarke Publishing co., 1922, v. 2, pp. 395-397. "Appointed principal chief of the Creek Nation" in 1921.

Griffith, Mary see Musgrove, Mary


Harjo, Chinnubbie see Posey, Alexander Lawrence

Harjo, Chitto aka Crazy Snake

Davis, Mace. "Chitto Harjo." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 13 (1935), pp. 139-45.

Meserve, John B. "The Plea of Crazy Snake (Chitto Harjo.)" Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 11 (1933), pp. 899-911.

Harjo, Joy

Harjo, Joy. Crazy Brave: A Memoir. New York: W. W. Norton, 2012.

____. Poet Warrior: A Memoir. New York: W. W. Norton, 2021. A memoir with poems.

____. Soul Talk, Song Language: Conversations with Joy Harjo, by Joy Harjo and Tanaya Winder. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 2011.

"Joy Harjo" IN Winged Words: American Indian Writers Speak, by Laura Coltelli. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska, 1990, pp. 54-68.

"Joy Harjo (May 9, 1951)." Dictionary of Native American Literature, p. 437-443. New York: Garland, 1994.

"Librarian of Congress Names Joy Harjo the Nation's 23rd Poet Laureate." Library of Congress Press Release, https://www.loc.gov/item/prn-19-066/librarian-of-congress-names-joy-harjo-the-nations-23rd-poet-laureate/2019-06-19/ .

Hillis Harjo aka Hildis Hadjo aka Francis, Josiah

Owsley, Frank L. Jr. "Prophet of War: Josiah Francis and the Creek War." American Indian Quarterly: Journal of American Indian Studies, v. 9, no. 3 (1985), pp. 273-293.

Hopethyurholur see Opothleyahola


Islands, Joseph aka Cho-so-gee

Faught, Jerry L, II. "John Davis and Joseph Islands: Indigenous Missionaries among the Creeks in Indian Territory." Baptist History and Heritage, v. 43, no. 2 (Spring 2008), pp. 32-43. Online at https://www.thefreelibrary.com/John%20Davis%20and%20Joseph%20Islands:%20indigenous%20missionaries%20among%20the...-a0184132771.

Tichenor, Isaac Taylor, �Joseph Islands, Apostle of the Indians� IN Isaac Taylor Tichenor, The Home Mission Statesman by Jacob Smiser Dill, pp. 159-168. Nashville: Sunday School Board, Southern Baptist Convention, 1908. Online at Archive.org. Islands died 1848.


Meserve, John B. "Chief Isparhecher." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 10 (1932), pp. 52-76.


Lewis, Jackson

King, Jerlena. "Jackson Lewis of the Confederate Creek Regiment." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 41 (1963), pp. 66-69.

Lindsey, Lilah D.

Misch, Mrs. J. O. "Lilah D. Lindsey." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 33 (1955), pp. 193-201.

Livingston, Chip

Chip Livingston.. Novelist and poet.

Alphabetically: B-C-D-F-G-H-I-L-M-P-O-R-S-W


MacIntosh Family

Note: See also McIntosh.

Meserve, John B. "The MacIntoshes." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 10 (1932), pp. 310-25.


Armstrong, Robert F. Malatchi of Coweta: Creek Diplomacy on the Southeastern Frontier, 1715 - 1756. Duke University, 1989. Online at https://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/10161/14795/malatchiofcoweta00arms.pdf?sequence=1.

Matthews, Mary see Musgrove, Mary

McGillivray, Alexander

Caughey, John W. McGillivray of the Creeks. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1938. This book is based on a selection of McGillivray's correspondence. A new edition adds an introduction by William J. Bauer Jr. that describes modern research on McGillivray and Caughey and his scholarly interests as he edited the letters. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2007.

Green, Michael D. "Alexander McGillivray." IN American Indian Leaders: Studies in Diversity, ed. R. David Edmunds, pp. 41-63.

O'Donnell, James H. III. "Alexander McGillivray: Training for Leadership, 1777-1783." Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 49 (1965), pp. 172-86.

Orrmont, Arthur. Diplomat in War Paint: Chief Alexander McGillivray of the Creeks. London: Abelard-Schuman, 1967.

Pickett, Albert J. "McGillivray and the Creeks." Alabama Historical Quarterly, v. 1 (1930).

Whitaker, Arthur P. "Alexander McGillivray." North Carolina Historical Review, v. 5 (1928), pp. 181-203 [1783-1789] and pp. 289-309 [1789-1793].

McGillivray Family

Wright, Amos J. Jr. The McGillivray and McIntosh Traders of the Old Southwest Frontier, 1716-1815. Montgomery, Ala.: NewSouth Books, 2001. Detailed discussion and references to every member of these two large related families that the author could trace, especially the Indian members. There is much related information on all the traders of this era.

McGillivray, Lachlan

NOTE: Listed here due to the information on his Creek family.

Cashin, Edward J. "Lachlan McGillivray: Indian Trader on the Southern Colonial Frontier" IN The Human Tradition in the American Revolution, ed. by Nancy L. Rhoden and Ian K. Steele. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources Inc., 2000.

____. Lachlan McGillivray, Indian Trader: The Shaping of the Southern Colonial Frontier. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992.

Neely, Mary Ann O. "Lachlan McGillivray: A Scot on the Alabama Frontier." Alabama Historical Quarterly, v. 36 (1974), pp. 5-14.

McIntosh Family
See Wright, Amos J. under: McGillivray Family

McIntosh, Chilly aka William Chillicothe McIntosh

McIntosh, Billie Jane. From Georgia Tragedy to Oklahoma Frontier: A Biography of Scots Creek Indian Chief Chilly McIntosh. Franklin, Tennessee: American History Imprints, 2008. The author is a great great granddaughter of Chilly (1800 - 1875), son of William McIntosh. Creek chief, Baptist minister, and Confederate colonel. Information on family and descendants is included.

McIntosh, William aka Tustunnugee Hutkee

Bonner, James. "Tustunugee Hutke and Creek Factionalism on the Georgia-Alabama Frontier." Alabama Review, v. 10 (1957), pp. 111-125.

____. "William McIntosh." IN: Georgians in Profile. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1958.

Chapman, George. Chief William McIntosh: A Man of Two Worlds. Atlanta: Cherokee Publishing Co., 1988. Includes a short appendix on his descendants.

Corbin, Harriet Turner. A History and Genealogy of Chief William McIntosh Jr., and His Known Descendants, ed. by Carl C. Burdick. Long Beach, Calif: privately published, no date. Available online at FamilySearch.org.

Griffith, Benjamin W. McIntosh and Weatherford, Creek Indian Leaders. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1988.

Scott, Carole E."The McIntosh Reserve" and a link to a short biography of McIntosh. Internet at: http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cescott/parks/mcintosh.html

Moniac, David

Dixon, Heriberto and Hauptman, Lawrence M. "From West Point to Wahoo Swamp: The career of Cadet David Moniac, class of 1822." American Indian, v. 17, no. 1, Spring 2016. Online" at https://www.americanindianmagazine.org/story/west-point-wahoo-swamp-career-cadet-david-moniac-class-1822. Believed to be first Native American graduate of West Point.

Moore, Augusta Robertson see Moore, Napoleon Bonaparte

Moore, Napoleon Bonaparte

Judge Napoleon Bonaparte Moore." IN Muskogee and Northeastern Oklahoma... by John D. Benedict, Chicago, S. J. Clarke Publishing co., 1922, v. 2, pp. 5-10 (with facing portrait). Another sketch containing different details is in v. 1, pp. 181-183 and yet another in v. 1, pp. 288, 291. These biographical sketches include information on both the Moore family and that of his wife, Augusta Robertson. [Other references on the members of the Robertson family (who were not Creek although very prominent in Creek affairs) are in Section 2, Secondary Sources.]

Mortar aka The Wolf King

Sauls, Lauren. "Mortar, an 18th-century Leader of the Bear Clan in the Creek Nation, Was Known as the 'Wolf King'". Wild West, v. 11, no. 5, (Feb. 1999), pp. 58-62.

Musgrove, Mary aka Coosaponakeesa aka Griffith, Mary aka Bosomworth, Mary aka Matthews, Mary

Baine, Rodney M. "Myths of Mary Musgrove." Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 76, no. 2 (Summer 1992), pp.428-435. Focuses on her ancestry and family and her relationship to other prominent individuals.

Coulter, E. Merton. "Mary Musgrove, 'Queen of the Creeks: a Chapter of Early Georgia Troubles." Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 11 (1927), pp. 1-30.

Fisher, Doris B. "Mary Musgrove: Creek Englishwoman". Ph'D thesis, Emory University, 1990.

Frank, Andrew K. "Mary Musgrove (ca. 1700-ca. 1763)." Web site, New Georgia Encyclopedia at https://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/history-archaeology/mary-musgrove-ca-1700-ca-1763.

Gillespie, Michele. "The Sexual Politics of Race and Gender: Mary Musgrove and the Georgia Trustees." IN The Devil's Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South, ed. by Catherine Clinton and Michele Gillespie. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997, pp. 187-201.

Green, Michael D. "Mary Musgrove: Creating a New World." IN Sifters: Native American Women's Lives, ed. by Theda Perdue. New York: Oxford University, Press, 2001, pp. 29-47.

Hahn, Steven C. The Life and Times of Mary Musgrove. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 2012. The old fashioned title of this book actually reflects its contents. Hahn's research has produced the most detailed information on Mary herself available and an in-depth look at the societies she lived in.

Irby, Richard E. Jr. "Mary Musgrove, Queen of the Creeks." Internet at: http://ngeorgia.com/people/musgrove.html .

Morris, Michael P. "Emerging Gender Roles for Southeastern Indian Women: The Mary Musgrove Story Reconsidered," Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 89, no. 1 (Spring 2005), pp. 1-24. A study of the manner in which Mary Musgrove's life combined two cultures.

____. "Mary Musgrove and Nancy Ward", chapter 3 of The Bringing of Wonder: Trade and the Indians of the Southeast, 1700-1783. Westport, Conn.: Greenwoood Press, 1999.

____. "The Peculiar Case of Mary Musgrove Matthews Bosomworth: Colonial Georgia's Forgotten Leader, 1733-1759." International Social Science Review, v. 71, no. 1/2 (1996), pp. 14-23.

Piker, Joshua. "The Empire, the Emperor, and the Empress: The Interesting Case of Mrs. Mary Bosomworth." IN European Empires in the American South, ed. by Joseph P. Ward. Oxford, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2017, pp. 149-168.


Oliver, Louis

Louis Oliver, 1904-1991. Poet.

Opothleyahola aka Opothleyaholo aka Hupuehelth Yaholo aka Hopethyurholur aka Gouge

McBride, Lela J. Opethleyaholo and the Loyal Muscogee: Their Flight to Kansas in the Civil War. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, 2000.

Meserve, John B. "Chief Opothleyhola." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 9 (1931), pp. 439-53.


Perryman Family

Meserve, John B. "The Perrymans." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 15 (1937), pp. 166-84.

Partridge, Reuben L. "Biography of L. C. Perryman, Tulsa, Oklahoma." A collection and transcription of extensive notes on the Perryman family based on the writings of Legust Choteau Perryman. Internet at: http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cmamcrk4/crkst20.html#anchor3058488 .

Porter, Pleasant

"General Pleasant Porter." IN Muskogee and Northeastern Oklahoma... by John D. Benedict, Chicago, S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1922, v. 1, pp. 291-292 plus portrait facing p. 288.

Goodwin, Ralph W. "Pleasant Porter, Tribal Statesman." M.A. Thesis (History), University of Oklahoma, 1953.

Meserve, John B. "Chief Pleasant Porter." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 9 (1931), pp. 318-34.

Posey, Alexander Lawrence

"Alex Posey." IN Muskogee and Northeastern Oklahoma... by John D. Benedict, Chicago, S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1922, v. 1, pp. 499-500.

"Alexander Lawrence Posey [Chinnubie Harjo] (August 3, 1873 - May 27, 1908)," Dictionary of Native American Literature, p. 281-283. New York: Garland, 1994.

Challacombe, Doris. "Alexander Lawrence Posey" Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 11 (1933), pp. 1011-18.

Littlefield, Daniel F. Alex Posey--Creek Poet, Journalist and Humorist. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.

See also Posey's own Fus Fixico Letters which is listed in the Secondary Sources section of this bibliography.


Red Eagle see Weatherford, William

Robertson, Augusta see Moore, Napoleon Bonaparte

Rogers, Sue

Foreman, Carolyn Thomas. "A Creek Pioneer: Notes Concerning 'Aunt Sue' Rogers and Her Family." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 21 (1943), pp. 271-79.



Sapulpa, William A. "Sapulpa." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 4 (1926), pp. 329-32.

Simms, Maxey

"Maxey Simms' Life Story." In Yuchi Tales by Gunter Wagner. Originally published in 1931 as v. 13 of Publications of the American Ethnological Society, this was reprinted in 1974 by AMS Press. Simms was of Yuchi/Creek/white descent and grew up in Indian Territory in the late 19th century. His reminiscences are given in both Yuchi and English. The rest of the text consists of stories told by Simms and others.

Supernaw, Susan

Supernaw, Susan. Muscogee Daughter: My Sojourn to the Miss America Pageant. (American Indian Lives). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2010. Autobiography of a Presidential Scholar and Miss Oklahoma of 1971.


Weatherford, William aka Red Eagle

Eggleston, George C. Red Eagle and the Wars with the Creek Indians of Alabama. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1878.

Griffith, Benjamin W. McIntosh and Weatherford, Creek Indian Leaders. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1988.

White Lieutenant

Foreman, Carolyn Thomas. "The White Lieutenant and Some of His Contemporaries." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 38 (1960), pp. 425-40.

Winn, Lizzie

Hill, Ernie. The Little Mother of the Creek Indians, Aunt Lizzie Winn. N. d, n. p., 2015. Pamphlet on woman who adopted 53 children. Much of the content is from a newspaper article in the Mexia (Texas) Weekly Herald, 24 Sep 1937, p. 3. which describes her as age 88.

Wolf King see Mortar

Alphabetically: B-C-D-F-G-H-I-L-M-P-O-R-S-W

Part II. Collective Biography

Gometz, Anne. Creek Indians in World War II. Mostly a list of names, but some detail on individuals. Internet at: https://www.rhus.com/ww2.html.

Heard, J. Norman. Handbook of the American Frontier: Four Centuries of Indian-White Relationships. Volume I. The Southeastern Woodlands. (Native American Resources Series, no. 1.) Metuchen, N. J.: Scarecrow Press, 1987. Short entries on tribes and groups, places such as forts and individuals including Creeks (mostly chiefs). The citations are to very basic works such as Corkran's The Creek Frontier, but the compilation as a whole is a very useful place to start research on a person or to identify someone mentioned in passing.

Hodges, Bert. "Notes on the History of the Creek Nation and Some of Its Leaders." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 43 (1965), pp. 9-18.

see Littlefield, Native American Writing in the Southeast in Secondary Sources for seven short biographical sketches.

McKenney, Thomas L. and James T. Hall. History of the Indian Tribes of North America, with Biographical Sketches and Anecdotes of the Principal Chiefs, Embellished with One Hundred and Twenty Portraits from the Indian Gallery in the Department of War, at Washington. 3 v. Philadelphia: Frederick W. Greenough, 1838-44. New edition, edited by Frederick W. Hodge. Edinburgh: J. Grant, 1933-44. This compilation is the source of our most familiar pictures of Creek leaders.

Meserve, John Bartlett. "Chief Samuel Checote with Sketches of Chiefs Locher Harjo and Ward Coachman." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 16 (1938), pp. 401-9.

____. Creek Chiefs of the Indian Territory. Collection of his articles from the Chronicles of Oklahoma. Opothleyahola, McIntoshes, Samuel Checote, Lochar Harjo, Ward Coachman, Perrymans,Isparhecher, Pleasant Porter. Online at FamilySearch.org.

O'Beirne, H. F. and E.S. O'Beirne. The Indian territory: its chiefs, legislators, and leading men. Saint Louis: C. B. Woodward Company, 1892. A typical "mug book" compilation. Available online at https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100265106.

Owens, Thomas M. "Alabama Indian Chiefs." Alabama Historical Quarterly, v. 13 (1951), pp. 5-91.

GO TO: Biography: Part I. Individuals and Families --- Part II. Collective Biography

GO TO: [Introduction] [Sec.1: Begin Here] [Sec.2: Secondary Sources] [Sec.3: Primary Sources] [Sec.4: Biography] [Sec.5: Genealogy] [Sec.6: Finding Pictures] [Sec.7: Further Research]

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