A Creek Indian Bibliography:

The Muscogee (Creek) Nation:

Sources for History, Biography and Genealogy;
Print and Internet Links
©Anne E. Gometz
Section 1: Begin Here
Section 2: Secondary Sources
Section 3: Primary Sources
Section 4: Biography
Section 5: Genealogy
Section 6: Finding Pictures
Section 7: Further Research

Section 2: Secondary Sources......

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Abel, Annie H. "History of Events Resulting in Indian Consolidation West of the Mississippi River," IN Annual Report, 1906, American Historical Association. Washington: GPO, 1908, p. 235-450.

Abram, Susan M. Forging a Cherokee-American Alliance in the Creek War. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2015.

Agnew, Brad. Fort Gibson: Terminal on the Trail of Tears. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980. An overview of the period from 1824 to the 1840s including the major Creek movements to "Indian Territory".

Akers, Frank H. Jr. "The Unexpected Challenge: The Creek War of 1813-1814." Ph'D Dissertation (History), Duke University, 1975. Military history concentrating upon the campaigns conducted by the forces from Mississippi Territory, Georgia and Tennessee.

Alden, John R. John Stuart and the Southern Colonial Frontier. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1944.

Andrews, Deborah et al. Final Report, September 2014: Ethnographic Overview and Assessment of Ocmulgee National Monument for the National Park Service Task Agreement No. P11AT51123. Online at http://npshistory.com/publications/ocmu/eoa.pdf .

Appleton, James L. and Ward, Robert D. "Albert James Pickett and the Case of the Secret Articles: Historians and the Treaty of New York of 1790." Alabama Review, v. 51 (1998), pp. 3-36. The secret articles are not included in the treaty as published in Kappler (see Primary Sources). They were published in "McGillivray and the Creeks" by Pickett (1930); in Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States, compiled by Hunter Miller, v. 2, p. 344 (1931), a compilation which contains no other Indian treaties; and now in this article.

Ashley, Keith H. "Effects of European and American Colonization of the Southeast on Upper Creek Settlement Patterns, 1700-1800." M. S. Thesis (Anthropology), Florida State University, 1988.


Bahos, Charles. "On Opothleyahola's Trail: Locating the Battle of Round Mountains." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 63 (1985/86), pp. 58-89. A detailed effort to locate the site of this Civil War battle in Indian Territory, this is mostly an article for the serious military history buff, but it definitely gives the impression that this particular historical question (which was addressed by Angie Debo in two earlier articles) has been answered.

Baine, Rodney M. "Indian Slavery in Colonial Georgia." Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 79 (1995), pp. 418-424.

____. "The Myth of the Creek Pictograph," Atlanta History, v. 32 (1988), pp. 43-52. There is an often repeated story that in 1735 the Georgia Trustees were sent a buffalo hide message written in pictographs. This is sometimes attributed to a Cherokee chief. Here Baine explores the origin of the myth and explains what was really on the hide -- a message in English from a gathering of Creeks.

Baird, W. David. "Are There 'Real" Indians in Oklahoma? Historical Perceptions of the Five Civilized Tribes." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 68 (1990/91), pp. 4-23. An essay stimulated by reaction to Baird's edition of the autobiography of G. W. Grayson, this article focuses on changing attitudes towards land tenure.

Banks, Dean. "Civil War Refugees from Indian Territory in the North: 1861-1864." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 41 (1963) pp. 286-298. The trek of Union supporters, led by Opothleyahola, to Kansas.

Barber, Douglas. "Council Government and the Genesis of the Creek War." Alabama Review, v. 3 (1985), pp. 163-174.

Barker, Eirlys Mair. "Much Blood and Treasure": South Carolina's Indian Traders, 1670-1755. Dissertation (History), College of William and Mary, 1993.

Bass, Althea. The Story of Tullahassee. Oklahoma City: Semco Color Press, 1960. Account of the mission of William Schenck Robertson, Presbyterian minister, teacher and father of Alice Robertson and Augusta Robertson Moore.

Bast, Homer. "Creek Indian Affairs, 1775 - 1778." Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 33, no. 1 (March 1949), pp. 1-25.

Benedict, John D. [Downing]. Muskogee and Northeastern Oklahoma including the Counties of Muskogee, McIntosh, Wagoner, Cherokee, Sequoyah, Adair, Delaware, Mayes, Rogers, Washington, Nowata, Craig, and Ottawa. Chicago: S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1922. A typical production of its period, this 3 volume set consists of a historical volume plus 2 volumes of biographical sketches of the type often referred to as "mug book" sketches. Volume 1 contains a great deal of material relating to the history of the Creeks in Indian Territory. However very few of the biographies relate to individuals identified as Creeks. References to those particular sketches are included section 4 (see Davis, Gibson, Grayson, Moore, Porter, Posey)of this Bibliography. Sketches of non-Creeks who played a prominent part in Creek affairs include:
---"John B. Campbell." Vol. 3, pp. 440-442. Campbell, a lawyer, was the compiler of "Campbell's abstract of Creek Indian census cards and index", "Campbell's abstract of Creek freedman census cards and index" and "Abstract of Seminole Indian census cards, and index", prepared to establish rights to land allotments.
---"Mrs. A. E. W. Robertson." Vol. 1, pp. 347-348 plus picture facing p. 344. Ann Eliza Worcester Robertson, missionary, translator of the Bible into Creek, mother of Alice Robertson and Augusta Robertson Moore.

Bolster, Mel H. "The Smoked Meat Rebellion: Early Oklahoma and Creek Unrest." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 31 (1953), pp. 37-55.

Bolton, Herbert E. "Spanish Resistance to the Carolina Traders in Western Georgia (1680-1704)," Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 9, no. 2 (June 1925), p. 115-130. The Spanish (and Apalache) versus English struggle for control of/alliance with the Creeks.

Bossy, Denise I. "Indian Slavery in Southeastern Indian and British Societies, 1670-1730." IN Indian Slavery in Colonial America, ed. by Alan Gallay. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2009, pp. 207-250.

Bowne, Eric E. "Dr. Henry Woodward's Role in Early Carolina Indian Relations." IN Creating and Contesting Carolina: Proprietary Era Histories, ed. by Michelle LeMaster and Bradford J. Wood. Columbia, S. C.: University of South Carolina Press, 2013, pp. 73-93. Woodward (1646-1690) was a South Carolina colonist who was active in diplomacy with many Indian tribes including the towns on the Chattahoochee that became the "Lower Creeks."

Boyd, Joel D. "Creek Indian Agents, 1834-1874." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 51 (1973), pp. 37-58.

Boyd, Mark F.. "Events at Prospect Bluff on the Apalachicola River, 1808-1818: An Introduction to Twelve Letters of Edmund Doyle, Trader," Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 16, no. 2 (October 1937), p. 55-96. An extensive introduction to the letters and the history of the area. For the letters, see Doyle, Edmund in Primary Sources.

____. "Expedition of Marcos Delgado from Apalache to the Upper Creek Country in 1686: Based on Original Documents, with Introduction, Translations, and Notes," Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 16, no. 1 (1937), pp. 2-32.

____ and Latorre, Jose Navarro. "Spanish Interest in British Florida, and in the Progress of the American Revolution. (I) Relations with the Spanish Faction of the Creek Indians," Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 32, no. 2 (1953), p. 92-130. Includes "Brief, Dealing with Various Communications from the Governor of Cuba on the Subject of Trade with the Uchise Indians, Extracted for the Council of the Indies, February 27, 1778. Archivo Historico Nacional [Madrid] Legajgo 3884, Expediente 1, Document 9."

Brannon, Peter Alexander. The Southern Indian Trade: Being Particularly a Study of Material from the Tallapoosa River Valley of Alabama. Montgomery, Ala.: Paragon Press, 1935. Traders, trading paths, and trade goods.

Braund, Kathryn E. H. "The Creek Indians, Blacks, and Slavery." Journal of Southern History, v. 57, no. 4 (November 1991), p. 601-636. How the concept and institution of slavery changed among the Creeks from the late 17th to the early 19th century.

____. Deerskins & Duffels: The Creek Indian Trade with Anglo America, 1685-1815. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.

_____. "Guardians of Tradition and Handmaidens to Change: Women's Roles in Creek Economic and Social Life during the Eighteenth Century." American Indian Quarterly, v. 14 (1990), pp. 239-258.

____. ""Like a Stone Wall Never To Be Broke": the British-Indian Boundary Line with the Creek Indians, 1763-1773." IN Britain and the American South : from colonialism to rock and roll, ed. by Joseph P. Ward. Jackson : University Press of Mississippi, c2003, pp. 53-80.

____. "Reflections on 'Shee Coocys'and the Motherless Child: Creek Women in a Time of War." Alabama Review, v. 64, no. 4 (Oct. 2011).

____. ""Resolved Not To Yield:" Tohopeka Two Hundred Years On." Alabama Review, v. 67, no. 3 (July 2014).

____, ed. Tohopeka: Rethinking the Creek War and the War of 1812. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2012. Essays from a Symposium, May 22-23, 2009. Contents: A deliberate passion / Marianne Mills -- Preface / Jay Lamar -- Introduction / Kathryn E. Holland Braund -- Causalities and consequences of the Creek War: a modern Creek perspective / Robert G. Thrower -- Thinking outside the circle: Tecumseh's 1811 mission / Gregory Evans Dowd -- "A packet from Canada": telling conspiracy stories on the 1813 Creek frontier / Robert P. Collins -- Red sticks / Kathryn E. Holland Braund -- Before horseshoe: Andrew Jackson's campaigns in the Creek War prior to Horseshoe Bend / Tom Kanon -- Cherokees in the Creek War: a band of brothers / Susan M. Abram -- Horseshoe bend: a living memorial / Ove Jensen -- Fort Jackson and the aftermath / Gregory A. Waselkov -- "We bleed our enemies in such cases to give them their senses": Americans' unrelenting wars on the Indians of the Trans-Appalachian West, 1810-1814 / John E. Grenier -- "Where all behave well": Fort Bowyer and the War on the Gulf, 1814-1815 / David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler -- Archaeology, geography, and the Creek War in Alabama / Craig T. Sheldon Jr. -- Digging twice: camps and historical sites associated with the War of 1812 and the Creek War of 1813-1814 / James W. Parker -- The western Muscogee (Creek) perspective / Ted Isham.

Briggs, Rachel V. "Landscape Analysis of a Late Eighteenth-Century to Early Nineteenth-Century Upper Creek Camp," Journal of Alabama Archaeology, v. 58, nos. 1 and 2 (2012), pp. 39-61. Online at https://www.academia.edu. Examines the Haney site in the lower Black Warrior River Valley in Alabama.

Britton, Wiley. The Civil War on the Border: A Narrative of Operations in Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas and the Indian Territory.... 2 vols. The 3rd ed., revised was published in 1899 and has since been reprinted. Almost a primary source as the author participated in some of the events recorded; he explains that he relied heavily on the Official Records. This book, as a general history, is somewhat outside the normal scope of this bibliography. However, it is a fundamental source for the experience of the Creeks during the war.

Bunn, Mike and Williams, Clay. Battle for the Southern Frontier: The Creek War and the War of 1812. Charleston, S. C.: The History Press, 2008. The authors' objective, as stated in the Preface, is to publicize the events and importance of these two conflicts and thus to further attempts to preserve and mark historical and archaeological sites. Much of the content is quick reference in nature: lists of historic sites, biographical notes, a bibliography, and some original documents. Useful as a quick introduction and as an in-hand reference for anyone visiting the areas described, but is unindexed.

____. "Frontier in Flames: The Creek War and the Mississippi Territory," Journal of Mississippi History, v. 74, no. 2 (Summer 2012), pp. 107-133. Online at Academia.edu, https://www.academia.edu/43152356/Frontier_in_Flames_The_Creek_War_and_the_Mississippi_Territory?email_work_card=view-paper.

Burton, Jeffrey. Indian Territory and the United States, 1866-1906. Legal History of North America, v. 1) Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995. Provides an invaluable overview of events during this period including the writing of constitutions and laws and information on the administration of justice.

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Campbell, Janis Elaine. "The Social and Demographic Effects of Creek Removal, 1832-1860." Ph'D Dissertation (Anthropology), University of Oklahoma, 1997. Online at https://shareok.org/bitstream/handle/11244/5510/9733704.PDF?sequence=1.

Campbell, Thomas. "Thomas Campbell to Lord Deane Gordon: An account of the Creek Indian Nation, 1764," Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 8 (1930) p. 156-163.

Carson, James Taylor. "'This Project So Benevolent': The Removal of the Creek Indians from Alabama, 1814-1836." Honors' essay, Dept. of History, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1990.

Cashin, Edward. "'But Brothers, It Is Our Land We Are Talking About:' Winners and Losers in the Georgia Backcountry." IN An Uncivil War: The Southern Backcountry During the American Revolution, edited by Ronald Hoffman et al. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1985, pp. 240-275.

____. "From Creeks to Crackers." IN: The Southern Colonial Backcountry: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Frontier Communities, Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1998, pp. 69-75. This short essay stresses the role of Augusta, Georgia as ameeting place of cultures.

____. Governor Henry Ellis and the Transformation of British North America. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994. Much on Indian relations/diplomacy of Georgia.

____. The King's Ranger: Thomas Brown and the American Revolution on the Southern Frontier. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1989. In 1779 Brown and Alexander Cameron suceeded John Stuart as British Superintendent of Indian Affairs, the former Southern District being divided in half.

____. William Bartram and the American Revolution on the Southern Frontier. Columbia, S. C.: University of South Carolina Press, 1999.

Caughey, John Walton. "Alexander McGillivray and the Creek Crisis, 1783-1784." IN New Spain and the Anglo-American West, Historical 33: Contributions Presented to Hubert E. Bolton. Los Angeles: privately printed, 1932, v. 1, p. 263-279.

Champagne, Duane. Social Order and Political Change: Constitutional Governments among the Cherokee, the Choctaw, the Chickasaw, and the Creek. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992.

Chang, David A. The Color of the Land: Race, Nation, and the Politics of Landownership in Oklahoma, 1832 - 1929. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010. Focusing on the Creek Nation, the author looks at the distribution of lands as affected by race, nation, and class.

____. "'An Equal Interest in the Soil:' Creek Small-Scale Farming and the Work of Nationhood, 1866-1889." American Indian Quarterly, v. 33, no. 1 (Winter 2009), pp. 98-130.

Clark, C. B. [Holátte Cvpvkke]. "Drove Off Like Dogs"--Creek Removal," IN: Indians of the Lower South: Past and Present, ed. by John K. Mahon. Pensacola: Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference, 1975.

Cline, Howard F. Florida Indians I: Notes on Colonial Indians and Communities in Florida 1700-1821; Notes on the Treaty of Coweta. New York: Garland Pub. Inc., 1974.

____. Florida Indians II: Provisional Historical Gazetteer with Locational Notes on Florida Colonial Communities. New York: Garland Publishing Inc., 1974.

Coker, William S. and Watson, Thomas D. Indian Traders of the Southeastern Spanish Borderlands: Panton, Leslie & Company and John Forbes & Company, 1783-1847. Pensacola: University of West Florida Press, 1986.

Corkran, David H.. See also Section 1.

____. The Carolina Indian Frontier. (Tricentennial Booklet Number 6) Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1970. This short (71 p.) publication covers South Carolina's relationship with local tribes from 1670 to the Revolution, focusing primarily on the Cherokees and Creeks.

Corry, John Pitts. Indian Affairs in Georgia, 1732-1756. Ph'D Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1936. Online at FamilySearch.org.

Cotterill, R. S. The Southern Indians: the Story of the Five Civilized Tribes before Removal. (Civilization of the American Indian Series, v. 38) Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954.

Coulter, E. Merton. "The Chehaw Affair," Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 49 (1965), pp. 369-395. An account of the massacre of the inhabitants of Chehaw by U. S. cavalry on April 23, 1818.

Cozzens, Peter. A Brutal Reckoning: Andrew Jackson, the Creek Indians, and the Epic War for the American South. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2023.

Crane, Verner W. "The Origin of the Name of the Creek Indians," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, v. 5, no. 3, (1918), pp. 339-342.

(Creek)Indians: Alabama-Coushatta. New York: Garland Publishing Co., 1974. Testimony before the Indian Claims Commission, docket no. 226. Contents listed separately in this bibliography.

Crider, Robert Franklin. "The Borderland Floridas, 1815-1821: Spanish Sovereignty under Siege". Ph.D. Dissertation (History), Florida State University, 1979.

Cromer, Marie West. Modern Indians of Alabama: Remmants of the Removal. Birmingham, Ala.: Southern University Press, [1987] (copyrighted by the author 1984). Describes: the Creek Nation East of the Mississippi, Inc. (Poarch Band of Escambia County), the Star Clan of Lower Muscogee Creeks, Inc., and the Ma-Chis Lower Creeks of Coffee County plus the Alabama Indian Affairs Commission.

Cummings, William David. "�The Indians May Be Led, But will Not Be Drove," The Creek Indians Struggle for Control of Its Own Destiny, 1783-1794." Ph'D dissertation, North Dakotal State University, 2016.Online, https://library.ndsu.edu/ir/handle/10365/25818.

Cunningham, Frank. General Stand Watie's Confederate Indians. San Antonio, Texas: The Naylor Company, 1959. While Stand Watie was a member of the Cherokee Tribe, this study is a survey, with a strong partisan focus on the Confederate forces, of the participation of members of the Five Civilized Tribes in the Civil War.

Cutrer, Thomas W. " 'The Tallapoosa Might Truly Be Called the River of Blood': Major Alexander McCulloch and the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, March 27, 1813." Alabama Review, v. 43(1990), pp. 35-39. Includes a short letter from McCulloch describing the battle.


Davis, Karl. "The Founding of Tensaw: Kinship, Community, Trade, and Diplomacy in the Creek Nation." IN Coastal Encounters: The Transformation of the Gulf South in the Eighteenth Century. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2007.

____. "'Remember Fort Mims:' Reinterpreting the Origins of the Creek War." Journal of the Early Republic, v. 22 no. 4 (2002), pp. 611-636. Describes the emergence of the Tensaw community and its effect on tensions in the Creek nation, leading finally to the attack on Fort Mims.

Debo, Angie. See also Section 1.

____. Tulsa: From Creek Town to Oil Capital. Norman: University of Oklahoma, 1943. Much of this small volume (122 p.) is devoted to Tulsa as a Creek town.

Dees, Deidra Suwanee. "The Muscogee Education Movement: Stories Told by an Elder." The Diversity Factor, v. 11, no. 4 (Fall 2003), pp. 16-21. Originally published an an ejournal at http://diversityfactor.rutgers.edu/. As of March 2013 available from: MasterFILE Complete, Ipswich, MA. Database from EBSCOhost. Abstract: "Focuses on statements given by Roberta McGhee Sells, also known as Aunt Bert, an activist in Muscogee Education Movement, a movement initiated by native Americans of the Poarch Muscogee or Creek Nation in Escambia County, Alabama, during 1930's and 1940's demanding that their children be given equal access to public school education..."

Denham, James M. "Denys Rolle and Indian Policy in British East Florida." Gulf Coast Historical Review, v. 7, no. 2 (Spring 1992), pp. 31-43.

DeRosier, Arthur H. Jr. "The Destruction of the Creek Confederacy," IN Forked Tongues and Broken Treaties, edited by Donald E. Worcester. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1975, pp. 72-108.

DeVorsey, Louis. The Indian Boundary in the Southern Colonies, 1763-1775. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1966.

Dickens, Roy S. Jr. Archaeological Investigations at Horseshoe Bend, National Military Park, Alabama. (Special Publications of the Alabama Archaeological Society, no. 3.) Tuscaloosa: Alabama Archaeological Society, 1979. With contributions by Linda F. Carnes [and others] ; and appendices by Walter N. Dietzen, Joan C. Rupp.

Doan, James E. "How the Irish and Scots Became Indians: Colonial Traders and Agents and the Southeastern Tribes." IN Extended Family: Essays on Being Irish American from New Hibernia Review. Chester Springs, Pennsylvania: Dufour Editions, 2013 pp. 107-123. Looks at some of the better known m�tis families.

Donaldson, Michael E. "Removal of the Creek Indians, 1830-1837." Master's thesis, Lamar University, 1977.

Doster, James F. The Creek Indians and Their Florida Lands, 1740-1823. 2 v. New York: Garland Publishing Co., 1974. This book is based on Indian Claims Commission exhibits and the citations are to those exhibits in the court case by number. This often makes it very difficult to determine what is the original source of a statement.
Identification of Indian Claims Commission Exhibits cited by Doster in this work.

Downes, Randolph C. "Creek-American Relations, 1790 - 1795." Journal of Southern History, v. 8, no. 3 (Aug 1942), pp. 350-373.

Drain, Maud. "The History of the Education of the Creek Indians." M.A. Thesis (History), University of Oklahoma, 1928.

Dubcovsky, Alejandra. "One Hundred Sixty-One Knots, Two Plates, and One Emperor: Creek Information Networks in the Era of the Yamasee War." Ethnohistory, v. 59, no. 3 (2012), pp. 489-513. Examing the communications centering on and stemming from Emperor Brims of Coweta.

Durschlag, Richard. "The First Creek Resistance: Transformations in Creek Indian Existence and the Yamasee War, 1670 - 1730." Ph'D dissertation. History, Duke University, 1995. Durschlag states that the "war was instigated and organized primarily by the Lower Creeks led by Brims, headman of Coweta." He refers to the war in this study as the Yamasee/Creek War. Part One covers the Mississippian origins of the Creeks, their coalescence, and the effects of European contact, especially disease. Part Two treats firearms, changing war patterns, and the Indian slave trade. Part Three discusses alliance with the English and then the final outbreak of the war.

Dysart, Jane E. "Another Road to Disappearance: Assimilation of Creek Indians in Pensacola, Florida, During the Nineteenth Century." Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 61, no. 1 (July 1982), pp. 37-48. Available online at https://palmm.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/ucf%3A25460. Sources cited include 1907-1908 applications "for the Eastern Cherokee enrollment in the mistaken belief that all Indians were included. Those applications, together with the testimony before the special claims commissioner who held hearings in Pensacola in 1908, provide extensive genealogical information."

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East, Don C. A Historical Analysis of the Creek Indian Hillabee Towns: And Personal Reflections on the Landscape and People of Clay County, Alabama. iUniverse, 2008.

Ellisor, John T. "Like So Many Wolves: Creek Removal in the Cherokee Country, 1835-1838." Journal of East Tennessee History, v. 71 (1999), pp. 1-24.

____. The Second Creek War: Interethnic Conflict and Collusion on a Collapsing Frontier. Lincoln: University of Neraska Press, 2010. A detailed study that goes far beyond describing military actions to look at the causes of the conflict and the various people involved. His research concludes that the war lasted much longer than the official dates.

Ethridge, Robbie. See also Section 1.

____. "Creating the Shatter Zone: Indian Slave Traders and the Collapse of the Southeastern Chiefdoms." IN Light on the Path: The Anthropology and History of the Southeastern Indians, ed. by Thomas J. Pluckhan and Robbie Ethridge, pp. 207-218. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2006. Ethridge includes the Creeks in her description of "militaristic slaving societies".

____. "Creeks and Americans in the Age of Washington." IN George Washington's South, ed. by Tamara Harvey and Greg O'Brien. Gainesville; University Press of Florida, 2004, pp. 278-312.


Fabel, Robin F. A.. "Lieutenant Thomas Campbell's Sojourn among the Creeks, November 1764-May 1765," by Robin F. A. Fabel and Robert R. Rea, Alabama Historical Quarterly, v. 36 (1974), pp. 97-111.

____. "St. Marks, Apalache and the Creeks," Gulf Coast Historical Review, v. 1, no. 2 (Spring 1986), pp. 4-22.

Fairbanks, Charles H. "Creek and Pre-Creek." IN: Archaeology of Eastern United States, ed. by James B. Griffin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952, pp.285-375. Also reprinted in Sturtevant, Creek Source Book.

_____. "Ethnographic Report on Royce Area 79: Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek." IN: Cherokee and Creek Indians, pp. 31-308 + maps. New York: Garland Publishing, 1974. Testimony before the Indian Claims Commission, docket no. 275. Royce Area 79 refers to a portion of the "north-central and northwest sections of Alabama just south of the Tennessee River."

Feest, Christian F. "Creek Towns in 1725," Ethnologische Zeitschrift Zurich, v. 1, (1974), pp. 161-175. An analysis of the list of Creek towns compiled in 1725 by Charlesworth Glover.

Fischer, LeRoy. "United States Indian Agents to the Five Civilized Tribes." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 51 (1973), pp. 34-36.

Fixico, Donald L. The Invasion of Indian Country in the Twentieth Century: American Capitalismn and Tribal Natural Resources, 2nd ed. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2011. Chapter 1: "Jackson Barnett and the Allotment Of Muscogee Creek Lands."

Flynt, Sean. "Lee and Susannah Compere," Baptist History and Heritage, March 22, 2008. Online at http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Lee and Susannah Compere.-a0184132772. Missionaries to the Creeks in the 1820s and 1830s, the Compere's became involved in both the controversy over slavery and over the cession of Creek lands. Some of their letters and reports may be found in the correspondence of the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society (see WorldCat accession no. 34075296) and in issues of the American Baptist Missionary Magazine. See Primary Sources.

Forbes, Gerald. "The International Conflict for the Lands of the Creek Confederacy." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 14 (1936), pp. 478-498.

Foreman, Carolyn Thomas. "Augusta Robertson Moore: A Sketch of Her Life and Times." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 13 (1935), pp. 399-420. (See also the entry in Section 4, Biography for her husband, Napoleon Bonaparte Moore.)

Foreman, Grant. Advancing the Frontier, 1830-1860. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1933. The southeastern tribes after their move west.

____. The Five Civilized Tribes: Cherokee, Chickasaw Choctaw, Creek, Seminole. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1934. The Oklahoma tribes from 1830-1860.

____. Indian Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1932. Revised edition, 1953. Focuses on 1830-1840.

____. Indians and Pioneers: The Story of the American Southwest before 1830. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1930. Revised edition, 1936. The "pioneers" from the East include Creeks.

Foster, H. Thomas II. Archaeology of the Lower Muscogee Creek Indians, 1715-1836. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2007. With contributions by Mary Theresa Bonhage-Freund and Lisa O'Steen. The Lower Crreks are those who lived along the lower Chattahoochee and Flint River watersheds. "This investigation will synthesize all known archaeological research at Lower Muscogee Creek sites." As Foster points out, much of the research on the Creeks has been done for cultural management project reports (a few included in this bibliography), but little of this literature has been formally published.

____. "Evidence of Historic Creek Indian Migration from a Regional and Direct Historic Analysis of Ceramic Types," Southeastern Archaeology, v. 23, no. 1 (2004), pp. 65-84. Analysis of pottery from all known Lower Creek archeological sites from the Lawson Field phase, 1715-1830.

Frank, Andrew K. Creeks & Southerners: Biculturalism on the Early American Frontier. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2005. A study of mixed Creek-European families and individuals during the pre-removal period, their accomodation to living between two cultures, and the response of the members of those cultures to them. Chapter 6 focuses on Tustunnuggee Hutkee (William McIntosh Jr.) and "the limits of dual identities".

____. "A Peculiar Breed of Whites": Race, Culture and Identity in the Creek Confederacy. Ph'D Dissertation, University of Florida, 1998.

____. "Rise and Fall of William McIntosh: Authority and Identity on the Early American Frontier." Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 86, no. 1 (Spring 2002).

____. "Taking the State Out: Seminoles and Creeks in Late Eighteenth-Century Florida." Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 84, no. 1 (2005), pp. 10-27.

Fretwell, Mark E. Benjamin Hawkins in the Chattahoochee Valley, 1798. A Correlation of Hawkins' Probable Route with Present Locations in Russell, Lee and Chambers Counties, Alabama and Troup and Heard Counties, Georgia. (Bulletin 1.) West Point, Ga.: Valley Historical Association, 1954,

____. This So Remote Frontier: The Chattahoochee Country of Alabama and Georgia. Tallahassee: Rose Printing Co., 1980. A publication of the Historic Chattahoochee Commission.


Gaillard, Frye. As Long As the Waters Flow: Native Americans in the South and East. Winston-Salem: John F. Blair, 1998. This combination of Frye's text and fine photos by Carolyn DeMeritt makes an excellent introduction to the topic of present-day Indians in this region. The Poarch Creeks receive extensive coverage.

Gallay, Alan. The Formation of a Planter Elite: Jonathan Bryan and the Southern Colonial Frontier. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1989. Chapter 6, "Dreams of Empire: Jonathan Bryan and the Creek Indians."

Gannett, Henry. A Gazetteer of Indian Territory. (U. S. Geological Bulletin no. 248.) Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1905. Location for each place is given by Indian nation.

Garrison, Tim Alan. "Beyond Worcester: The Alabama Supreme Court and the Sovereignty of the Creek Nation." Journal of the Early Republic, v. 19 (1999), pp. 423-450. The importance of Caldwell vs. Alabama [1831], ostensibly a simple murder case, in the legal and political drive to remove the Creeks from Alabama.

Gatschet, Albert S. A Migration Legend of the Creek Indians with a Linguistic, Historic and Ethnographic Introduction. 2 vols. Vol. 1, Philadelphia: D. G. Brinton, 1884. (Brinton's Library of Aboriginal American Literature, no. 4); vol. 2, St Louis, Mo.: printed for the author, 1888. Reprinted in one volume, New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1969. Contains a glossary as well as a list of towns and much other historical information.

____. "Towns and Villages of the Creek Confederacy in the XVIII. and XIX. Centuries." Publications of the Alabama Historical Society, Miscellaneous Collections, v. 1, pp. 386-414. Reprinted in Sturtevant, Creek Source Book.

Goff, John H. "The Path to Oakfuskee: Upper Trading Route in Alabama to the Creek Indians," Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 39 (1955), pp. 152-171.

____. "The Path to Oakfuskee: Upper Trading Route in Georgia to the Creek Indians," Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 39 (1955), pp. 1-36.

Good, Mary Elizabeth. "A Comparison of Glass Beads from Upper Creek Indian Towns in the Southeast and in Oklahoma," IN Proceedings of the 1982 Glass Trade Bead Conference, edited by Charles F. Hayes III. Rochester Museum and Science Center, (Research Records 16), 1983, p. 159-166. References, p. 259-282. Provides background information on Upper Creek settlements in Oklahoma. Online, https://www.academia.edu/39940713/Mary_Elizabeth_Good_A_Comparison_of_Glass_Beads_from_Upper_Creek_Indian_Towns_in_the_Southeast_and_in_Oklahoma.

Grant, Ethan A. "Fort Toulouse and the North American Southeast, 1700-1764." Gulf Coast Historical Review, v. 7, no. 2 (Spring 1992), pp. 6-15. Summary article which outlines the situation between the French and English in this period and discusses the relationship of the French to the Alabamas (Creeks).

Grantham, Bill. Creation Myths and Legends of the Creek Indians. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002. Part 1 provides historical background including detailed distinctions between the various groups regarded as Creek. Part 2 collects the myths including some previously unpublished.

Graves, William H. "Indian Soldiers for the Gray Army: Confederate Recruitment in Indian Territory." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 69 (1991/92), pp. 134-145.

Green, Michael D. "The Creek Confederacy in the American Revolution: Cautious Participants." IN Anglo-Spanish Confrontation on the Gulf Coast During the American Revolution, ed. by William S. Coker and Robert R. Rea. Pensacola, Florida: Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference, 1982, pp. 54-75.

____. "Federal-State Conflict in the Administration of Indian Policy: Georgia, Alabama, and the Creeks, 1824-1834." Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Iowa, 1973.

____. The Politics of Indian Removal: Creek Government and Society in Crisis. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982. Focuses on period after War of 1812.

____. See also Section 1.

Grinde, Donald A. Jr. and Taylor, Quintard. "Red vs Black: Conflict and Accommodation in the Post Civil War Indian Territory, 1865-1907." American Indian Quarterly, v. 8 (1984), pp. 211-229.

By author: A-B-C-D--E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P--R-S-T--U - V--W-XYZ


Haan, Richard L. "The 'Trades Do's Not Flourish As Formerly': The Ecological Origins of the Yamassee War of 1715." Ethnohistory, v. 28 (1981), pp. 341-358. The author describes this war as the event which "catalyzed the emergence of the Creek Confederacy".

Haas, Mary R. "Creek Inter-Town Relations," American Anthropologist,, v. 42 (1940), pp. 479-489. Describes the relationship of the ball game known as the "match game" to the status of "Red" and "White" towns in Creek society.

Hahn, Steven C. See also Section 1.

____. "The Cussita Migration Legend: History, Ideology, and the Politics of Mythmaking." IN Light on the Path: The Anthropology and History of the Southeastern Indians, ed. by Thomas J. Pluckhan and Robbie Ethridge, pp. 57-93. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2006. An interesting analysis of this account as a political document and device of its time, 1735, and how it relates to the history of the Cowetas.

____. " 'The Indians That Live about Pon Pon': John and Mary Musgrove and the Making of a Creek Indian Community in South Carolina, 1717-1732," IN Creating and Contesting Carolina: Proprietary Era Histories, ed. by Michelle LeMaster and Bradford J. Wood, pp. 343-366. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2013.

____. "The Mother of Necessity: Carolina, the Creek Indians, and the Making of a New Order in the American Southeast, 1670-1763" IN The Transformation of the Southern Indians, 1540-1760, ed. by Robbie Ethridge and Charles Hudson. (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, c2002). Pp. 79-114, notes on pp. 285-289.

Halbert, H[enry]. S. and Ball, T[imothy]. H. The Creek War of 1813 and 1814, ed. by Frank L. Owsley Jr. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1995. Originally published in 1895; this edition adds notes and an index. Also an online copy of the 1895 edition. Internet at: https://archive.org/details/creekwarand00ballgoog/page/n12.

____. "Indian Land Cessions in Alabama." Arrow Points, v. 7, no. 1 (1923), pp. 6-10.

Hale, Douglas. "Rehearsal for Civil War: The Texas Cavalry in the Indian Territory, 1861." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 68 (1990/91), pp. 228-265. Five Texas regiments vs. Opothle Yahola and his neutralists.

Hall, Joseph. "Anxious Alliances: Apalachicola Efforts to Survive the Slave Trade, 1638-1705." IN Indian Slavery in Colonial America ed. by Alan Gallay. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2009, pp. 147-184. Describes the efforts of thirteen towns to fend off slave traders by alliances with the Yamasees and the English, events leading up to the formation of the Creek "Confederacy."

Halley, David J., ed. Ocmulgee Archaeology, 1936-1986. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994. This bibliography does not, in general, deal with archaeology and the vexed scholarly question -- still very much a matter for debate -- of the prehistoric antecedents of the historic Creeks. I have listed one essay by Waselkov, which deals with the historic period, separately in this bibliography.. However I would recommend this title as a whole as a starting point for those who are interested in this subject, if just for its extensive bibliography.

Hamer, Friedrich P. "Indian Traders, Land and Power: A Comparative Study of George Galphin on the Southern Frontier and Three Northern Traders". M. A. Thesis, University of South Carolina, 1982.

Hann, John H. "Late Seventeenth-Century Forbears of the Lower Creeks and Seminoles," Southeastern Archaeology, v. 15 no. 1 (Summer 1996), pp. 66-80. A very useful article that clarifies place names and discusses the movements of towns and peoples. Includes a map. Recommended for anyone doing research in this area.

Harden, Edward J. The Life of George M. Troup. Savannah, Ga.: E. J. Purse, 1859. Troup was governor of Georgia and a cousin of Creek chief William McIntosh (although it appears that the cousins were not personally acquainted). This is not a scholarly biography of the type today's readers are accustomed to. On the plus side, it quotes huge quantities of primary sources.

Harmon, Alexandra. "American Indians and Land Monopolies in the Gilded Age," Journal of American History, v. 90, no. 1 (June 2003), p. 106-133. The conflict between methods of land ownership -- individual vs. collective -- within tribal society as well as within national politics and attitudes.

Harrell, Kevin T. "The Terrain of Factionalism: How Upper Creek Communities Negotiated the Recourse of Gulf Coast Trade, 1763-1780." Alabama Review, v. 68, no. 1 (Jan 2015) pp. 74-113.

Harring, Sidney L. "Crazy Snake and the Creek Struggle for Sovereignty: The Native American Legal Culture and Native Law." American Journal of Legal History, v. 34 (1990), pp. 365-380.

Harris, W. Stuart. Dead Towns of Alabama. University: University of Alabama Press, 1977. Includes 83 Indian towns, 47 fort sites, and 112 settlements of the colonial, territorial or state periods. Has index, footnotes, bibliography and a list by county. Very handy little publication.

Hassig, Ross. "Internal Conflicts in the Creek War of 1813-1814." Ethnohistory, v. 21 (1974), pp. 251-271.

Haveman, Christopher D."The Indomitable Women of the Creek Removal Era: 'Someone Must Have Told Her That I Meant to Run Away With Her,'" IN Lisa Lindquist Dorr and Susan Ashmore, eds., Alabama Women: Their Lives and Times. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2017.

____. ��Last Evening I Saw the Sun Set for the Last Time�: The 1832 Treaty of Washington and the Transfer of the Creeks� Alabama Land to White Ownership," Native South, Vol. 5 (2012) pp. 61-94.

____. Rivers of Sand: Creek Indian Emigration, Relocation, and Ethnic Cleansing in the American South. Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 2016. A prize-winning study.

____. "'With Great Difficulty and Labour': The Emigration of the McIntosh Party of Creek Indians, 1828-1828," Chronicles of Oklahoma, v.85, no.4 (Winter 2007-08), pp. 468-490.

Hawkins, John D. "A biographical sketch and incidents of the life and services of the late Col[onel] Benjamin Hawkins Superintendent of all the Indians South of the Ohio by his nephew John D. Hawkins of Franklin County No[rth] Carolina, 1848." Manuscript, 32 p. Manuscript held by the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, The University of Georgia Libraries, Keith Read, box 12, folder 36, document 01. Online in Digital Library of Georgia, https://dlg.usg.edu/record/dlg_zlna_krc023?canvas=0&x=1155&y=1827&w=14782.

Hawkins, Philip C. "Creek Schism: Seminole Genesis Revisited." Master's thesis, University of South Florida, 2009. Online at https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd/2004/.

Haynes, Joshua. "Patrolling the Border: Theft and Violence on the Creek-Georgia Frontier, 1770-1796." Ph'D Dissertation (History), University of Georgia, 2013.

Heard, J. Norman. Handbook of the American Frontier: Four Centuries of Indian-White Relationships. Volume I. The Southeastern Woodlands. (Native American Resources Series, no. 1) Short entries identify people, including some Creek chiefs, places, tribes and groups. Useful way to look up a passing mention in a text.

Henri, Florette. The Southern Indians and Benjamin Hawkins, 1796-1816. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986.

Hewitt, J. N. B. "Notes on the Creek Indians," ed. by. John R. Swanton. Bulletin [Bureau of American Ethnology], no. 123, (1939), pp. 119-159. ( Anthropological papers no 10). Reprinted in Sturtevant, Creek Source Book. Primarily cultural information gathered from interviews with Legus F. Perryman and Pleasant Porter in the 1880s. Available online in Archive.org.

Hill, James L. "'Bring Them What They Lack:' Spanish-Creek Exchange and Alliance Making in a Maritime Border Land, 1763-1783." Early American Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, v. 12, no. 1 (Winter 2014), pp. 36-67. Creek contact with Cuba.

Hinds, Roland. "White Intruders in the Creek Nation, 1830-1907." M.A. Thesis (History), University of Oklahoma, 1936.

Holátte Cvpvkke see Clark, C. B.

Holland, James W. Andrew Jackson and the Creek War: Victory at the Horseshoe. University: University of Alabama Press, 1968.

Hollingsworth, Dixon. Indians on the Savannah River. Sylvania, Ga.: Partridge Pond Press, 1976. The title of this 83 page pamphlet is somewhat misleading; the contents include various notes and maps on southeastern tribes.

Hook, Jonathan B. The Alabama-Coushatta Indians. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1997. A study of the concept of "Indian identity" with the Alabama-Coushatta of Texas, once members of the Creek confederacy, as the focus.

Hryniewicki, Richard J. "The Creek Treaty of November 15, 1827." Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 52, no. 1 (March 1968), pp. 1-15.

____. "Creek Treaty of Washington, 1826." Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 48, no. 4 (December 1964), pp. 425-441.

Hudson, Angela Pulley. Creek Paths and Federal Roads: Indians, Settlers, and Slaves and the Making of the American South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010. Roads as places.

Hudson, Charles, and Tessar, Carmen Chaves, eds. The Forgotten Centuries: Indians and Europeans in the American South, 1521-1704. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994. Collection of essays.

Hudson, Charles. "The Genesis of Georgia's Indians," IN Forty Years of Diversity: Essays on Colonial Georgia, ed. by Harvey H. Jackson and Phinizy Spalding. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1984.

____. See also Section 1.

Humphrey, Charles Manley. "Removal of the Creek Indians to Oklahoma." Master's thesis, Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, 1933.

Hurt, Douglas A. "Defining American Homelands: A Creek Nation Example, 1828-1907," Journal of Cultural Geography, v. 21, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 2003), pp. 19-43. The author uses the Creek (Muscogee) Nation in Indian Territory to demonstrate the concept of "homeland" and its defining characteristics.

____. "The Shaping of a Creek (Muscogee) Homeland in Indian Territory, 1828-1907." Ph'D Dissertation (Geography), University of Oklahoma, 2000.