A Creek Indian Bibliography:

The Muscogee (Creek) Nation:

Sources for History, Biography and Genealogy;
Print and Internet Links
©Anne E. Gometz
Section 1: Begin Here
Section 2: Secondary Sources
Section 3: Primary Sources
Section 4: Biography
Section 5: Genealogy
Section 6: Finding Pictures
Section 7: Further Research

Section 2: Secondary Sources......

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Abel, Annie H. "History of Events Resulting in Indian Consolidation West of the Mississippi River," IN Annual Report, 1906, American Historical Association. Washington: GPO, 1908, p. 235-450.

Abram, Susan M. Forging a Cherokee-American Alliance in the Creek War. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2015.

Agnew, Brad. Fort Gibson: Terminal on the Trail of Tears. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980. An overview of the period from 1824 to the 1840s including the major Creek movements to "Indian Territory".

Akers, Frank H. Jr. "The Unexpected Challenge: The Creek War of 1813-1814." Ph'D Dissertation (History), Duke University, 1975. Military history concentrating upon the campaigns conducted by the forces from Mississippi Territory, Georgia and Tennessee.

Alden, John R. John Stuart and the Southern Colonial Frontier. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1944.

Andrews, Deborah et al. Final Report, September 2014: Ethnographic Overview and Assessment of Ocmulgee National Monument for the National Park Service Task Agreement No. P11AT51123. Online at http://npshistory.com/publications/ocmu/eoa.pdf .

Appleton, James L. and Ward, Robert D. "Albert James Pickett and the Case of the Secret Articles: Historians and the Treaty of New York of 1790." Alabama Review, v. 51 (1998), pp. 3-36. The secret articles are not included in the treaty as published in Kappler (see Primary Sources). They were published in "McGillivray and the Creeks" by Pickett (1930); in Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States, compiled by Hunter Miller, v. 2, p. 344 (1931), a compilation which contains no other Indian treaties; and now in this article.

Ashley, Keith H. "Effects of European and American Colonization of the Southeast on Upper Creek Settlement Patterns, 1700-1800." M. S. Thesis (Anthropology), Florida State University, 1988.


Bahos, Charles. "On Opothleyahola's Trail: Locating the Battle of Round Mountains." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 63 (1985/86), pp. 58-89. A detailed effort to locate the site of this Civil War battle in Indian Territory, this is mostly an article for the serious military history buff, but it definitely gives the impression that this particular historical question (which was addressed by Angie Debo in two earlier articles) has been answered.

Baine, Rodney M. "Indian Slavery in Colonial Georgia." Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 79 (1995), pp. 418-424.

____. "The Myth of the Creek Pictograph," Atlanta History, v. 32 (1988), pp. 43-52. There is an often repeated story that in 1735 the Georgia Trustees were sent a buffalo hide message written in pictographs. This is sometimes attributed to a Cherokee chief. Here Baine explores the origin of the myth and explains what was really on the hide -- a message in English from a gathering of Creeks.

Baird, W. David. "Are There 'Real" Indians in Oklahoma? Historical Perceptions of the Five Civilized Tribes." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 68 (1990/91), pp. 4-23. An essay stimulated by reaction to Baird's edition of the autobiography of G. W. Grayson, this article focuses on changing attitudes towards land tenure.

Banks, Dean. "Civil War Refugees from Indian Territory in the North: 1861-1864." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 41 (1963) pp. 286-298. The trek of Union supporters, led by Opothleyahola, to Kansas.

Barber, Douglas. "Council Government and the Genesis of the Creek War." Alabama Review, v. 3 (1985), pp. 163-174.

Barker, Eirlys Mair. ""Much Blood and Treasure": South Carolina's Indian Traders, 1670-1755." Dissertation (History), College of William and Mary, 1993.

Bass, Althea. The Story of Tullahassee. Oklahoma City: Semco Color Press, 1960. Account of the mission of William Schenck Robertson, Presbyterian minister, teacher and father of Alice Robertson and Augusta Robertson Moore.

Bast, Homer. "Creek Indian Affairs, 1775-1778". Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 33, no. 1 (March 1949) pp.1-25.

Benedict, John D. [Downing]. Muskogee and Northeastern Oklahoma including the Counties of Muskogee, McIntosh, Wagoner, Cherokee, Sequoyah, Adair, Delaware, Mayes, Rogers, Washington, Nowata, Craig, and Ottawa. Chicago: S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1922. A typical production of its period, this 3 volume set consists of a historical volume plus 2 volumes of biographical sketches of the type often referred to as "mug book" sketches. Volume 1 contains a great deal of material relating to the history of the Creeks in Indian Territory. However very few of the biographies relate to individuals identified as Creeks. References to those particular sketches are included section 4 (see Davis, Gibson, Grayson, Moore, Porter, Posey)of this Bibliography. Sketches of non-Creeks who played a prominent part in Creek affairs include:
---"John B. Campbell." Vol. 3, pp. 440-442. Campbell, a lawyer, was the compiler of "Campbell's abstract of Creek Indian census cards and index", "Campbell's abstract of Creek freedman census cards and index" and "Abstract of Seminole Indian census cards, and index", prepared to establish rights to land allotments.
---"Mrs. A. E. W. Robertson." Vol. 1, pp. 347-348 plus picture facing p. 344. Ann Eliza Worcester Robertson, missionary, translator of the Bible into Creek, mother of Alice Robertson and Augusta Robertson Moore.

Bolster, Mel H. "The Smoked Meat Rebellion: Early Oklahoma and Creek Unrest." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 31 (1953), pp. 37-55.

Bolton, Herbert E. "Spanish Resistance to the Carolina Traders in Western Georgia (1680-1704)," Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 9, no. 2 (June 1925), p. 115-130. The Spanish (and Apalache) versus English struggle for control of/alliance with the Creeks.

Bossy, Denise I. "Indian Slavery in Southeastern Indian and British Societies, 1670-1730." IN Indian Slavery in Colonial America, ed. by Alan Gallay. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2009, pp. 207-250.

Bowne, Eric E. "Dr. Henry Woodward's Role in Early Carolina Indian Relations." IN Creating and Contesting Carolina: Proprietary Era Histories, ed. by Michelle LeMaster and Bradford J. Wood. Columbia, S. C.: University of South Carolina Press, 2013, pp. 73-93. Woodward (1646-1690) was a South Carolina colonist who was active in diplomacy with many Indian tribes including the towns on the Chattahoochee that became the "Lower Creeks."

Boyd, Joel D. "Creek Indian Agents, 1834-1874." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 51 (1973), pp. 37-58.

Boyd, Mark F.. "Events at Prospect Bluff on the Apalachicola River, 1808-1818: An Introduction to Twelve Letters of Edmund Doyle, Trader," Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 16, no. 2 (October 1937), p. 55-96. An extensive introduction to the letters and the history of the area. For the letters, see Doyle, Edmund in Primary Sources.

____. "Expedition of Marcos Delgado from Apalache to the Upper Creek Country in 1686: Based on Original Documents, with Introduction, Translations, and Notes," Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 16, no. 1 (1937), pp. 2-32.

____ and Latorre, Jose Navarro. "Spanish Interest in British Florida, and in the Progress of the American Revolution. (I) Relations with the Spanish Faction of the Creek Indians," Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 32, no. 2 (1953), p. 92-130. Includes "Brief, Dealing with Various Communications from the Governor of Cuba on the Subject of Trade with the Uchise Indians, Extracted for the Council of the Indies, February 27, 1778. Archivo Historico Nacional [Madrid] Legajgo 3884, Expediente 1, Document 9."

Brannon, Peter Alexander. The Southern Indian Trade: Being Particularly a Study of Material from the Tallapoosa River Valley of Alabama. Montgomery, Ala.: Paragon Press, 1935. Traders, trading paths, and trade goods.

Braund, Kathryn E. H. "The Creek Indians, Blacks, and Slavery." Journal of Southern History, v. 57, no. 4 (November 1991), p. 601-636. How the concept and institution of slavery changed among the Creeks from the late 17th to the early 19th century.

____. Deerskins & Duffels: The Creek Indian Trade with Anglo America, 1685-1815. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.

_____. "Guardians of Tradition and Handmaidens to Change: Women's Roles in Creek Economic and Social Life during the Eighteenth Century." American Indian Quarterly, v. 14 (1990), pp. 239-258.

____. ""Like a Stone Wall Never to Be Broke": the British-Indian Boundary Line with the Creek Indians, 1763-1773." IN Britain and the American South : From Colonialism to Rock and Roll, ed. by Joseph P. Ward. Jackson : University Press of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 53-80.

____. "Reflections on 'Shee Coocys'and the Motherless Child: Creek Women in a Time of War." Alabama Review, v. 64, no. 4 (Oct. 2011).

____. ""Resolved Not to Yield" Tohopeka Two Hundred Years On." Alabama Review, v. 67, no. 3 (July 2014).

____, ed. Tohopeka: Rethinking the Creek War and the War of 1812. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2012. Essays from a Symposium, May 22-23, 2009. Contents: A deliberate passion / Marianne Mills -- Preface / Jay Lamar -- Introduction / Kathryn E. Holland Braund -- Causalities and consequences of the Creek War: a modern Creek perspective / Robert G. Thrower -- Thinking outside the circle: Tecumseh's 1811 mission / Gregory Evans Dowd -- "A packet from Canada": telling conspiracy stories on the 1813 Creek frontier / Robert P. Collins -- Red sticks / Kathryn E. Holland Braund -- Before Horseshoe: Andrew Jackson's campaigns in the Creek War prior to Horseshoe Bend / Tom Kanon -- Cherokees in the Creek War: a band of brothers / Susan M. Abram -- Horseshoe Bend: a living memorial / Ove Jensen -- Fort Jackson and the aftermath / Gregory A. Waselkov -- "We bleed our enemies in such cases to give them their senses": Americans' unrelenting wars on the Indians of the Trans-Appalachian West, 1810-1814 / John E. Grenier -- "Where all behave well": Fort Bowyer and the War on the Gulf, 1814-1815 / David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler -- Archaeology, geography, and the Creek War in Alabama / Craig T. Sheldon Jr. -- Digging twice: camps and historical sites associated with the War of 1812 and the Creek War of 1813-1814 / James W. Parker -- The western Muscogee (Creek) perspective / Ted Isham.

Briggs, Rachel V. "Landscape Analysis of a Late Eighteenth-Century to Early Nineteenth-Century Upper Creek Camp," Journal of Alabama Archaeology, v. 58, nos. 1 and 2 (2012), pp. 39-61. Online at https://www.academia.edu. Examines the Haney site in the lower Black Warrior River Valley in Alabama.

Britton, Wiley. The Civil War on the Border: A Narrative of Operations in Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas and the Indian Territory.... 2 vols. The 3rd ed., revised was published in 1899 and has since been reprinted. Almost a primary source as the author participated in some of the events recorded; he explains that he relied heavily on the Official Records. This book, as a general history, is somewhat outside the normal scope of this bibliography. However, it is a fundamental source for the experience of the Creeks during the war.

Bunn, Mike and Williams, Clay. Battle for the Southern Frontier: The Creek War and the War of 1812. Charleston, S. C.: The History Press, 2008. The authors' objective, as stated in the Preface, is to publicize the events and importance of these two conflicts and thus to further attempts to preserve and mark historical and archaeological sites. Much of the content is quick reference in nature: lists of historic sites, biographical notes, a bibliography, and some original documents. Useful as a quick introduction and as an in-hand reference for anyone visiting the areas described, but is unindexed.

____. "Frontier in Flames: The Creek War and the Mississippi Territory," Journal of Mississippi History, v. 74, no. 2 (Summer 2012), pp. 107-133. Online at Academia.edu, https://www.academia.edu/43152356/Frontier_in_Flames_The_Creek_War_and_the_Mississippi_Territory?email_work_card=view-paper.

Burton, Jeffrey. Indian Territory and the United States, 1866-1906. (Legal History of North America, v. 1) Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995. Provides an invaluable overview of events during this period including the writing of constitutions and laws and information on the administration of justice.

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Campbell, Janis Elaine. "The Social and Demographic Effects of Creek Removal, 1832-1860." Ph'D Dissertation (Anthropology), University of Oklahoma, 1997. Online at https://shareok.org/bitstream/handle/11244/5510/9733704.PDF?sequence=1.

Campbell, Thomas. "Thomas Campbell to Lord Deane Gordon: An Account of the Creek Indian Nation, 1764," Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 8 (1930) p. 156-163.

Carson, James Taylor. "'This Project So Benevolent': The Removal of the Creek Indians from Alabama, 1814-1836." Honors' essay, Dept. of History, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1990.

Cashin, Edward. "'But Brothers, It Is Our Land We Are Talking About:' Winners and Losers in the Georgia Backcountry." IN An Uncivil War: The Southern Backcountry During the American Revolution, edited by Ronald Hoffman et al. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1985, pp. 240-275.

____. "From Creeks to Crackers." IN: The Southern Colonial Backcountry: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Frontier Communities, Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1998, pp. 69-75. This short essay stresses the role of Augusta, Georgia as a meeting place of cultures.

____. Governor Henry Ellis and the Transformation of British North America. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994. Much on Indian relations/diplomacy of Georgia.

____. The King's Ranger: Thomas Brown and the American Revolution on the Southern Frontier. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1989. In 1779 Brown and Alexander Cameron suceeded John Stuart as British Superintendent of Indian Affairs, the former Southern District being divided in half.

____. William Bartram and the American Revolution on the Southern Frontier. Columbia, S. C.: University of South Carolina Press, 1999.

Caughey, John Walton. "Alexander McGillivray and the Creek Crisis, 1783-1784." IN New Spain and the Anglo-American West, Historical 33: Contributions Presented to Hubert E. Bolton. Los Angeles: privately printed, 1932, v. 1, p. 263-279.

Champagne, Duane. Social Order and Political Change: Constitutional Governments among the Cherokee, the Choctaw, the Chickasaw, and the Creek. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992.

Chang, David A. The Color of the Land: Race, Nation, and the Politics of Landownership in Oklahoma, 1832 - 1929. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010. Focusing on the Creek Nation, the author looks at the distribution of lands as affected by race, nation, and class.

____. "'An Equal Interest in the Soil:' Creek Small-Scale Farming and the Work of Nationhood, 1866-1889." American Indian Quarterly, v. 33, no. 1 (Winter 2009), pp. 98-130.

Clark, C. B. [Holátte Cvpvkke]. "Drove Off Like Dogs"--Creek Removal," IN: Indians of the Lower South: Past and Present, ed. by John K. Mahon. Pensacola: Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference, 1975.

Cline, Howard F. Florida Indians I: Notes on Colonial Indians and Communities in Florida 1700-1821; Notes on the Treaty of Coweta. New York: Garland Pub. Inc., 1974.

____. Florida Indians II: Provisional Historical Gazetteer with Locational Notes on Florida Colonial Communities. New York: Garland Publishing Inc., 1974.

Coker, William S. and Watson, Thomas D. Indian Traders of the Southeastern Spanish Borderlands: Panton, Leslie & Company and John Forbes & Company, 1783-1847. Pensacola: University of West Florida Press, 1986.

Corkran, David H.. See also Section 1.

____. The Carolina Indian Frontier. (Tricentennial Booklet Number 6) Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1970. This short (71 p.) publication covers South Carolina's relationship with local tribes from 1670 to the Revolution, focusing primarily on the Cherokees and Creeks.

Corry, John Pitts. "Indian Affairs in Georgia, 1732-1756". Ph'D Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1936. Online at FamilySearch.org.

Cotterill, R. S. The Southern Indians: the Story of the Five Civilized Tribes before Removal. (Civilization of the American Indian Series, v. 38) Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954.

Coulter, E. Merton. "The Chehaw Affair," Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 49 (1965), pp. 369-395. An account of the massacre of the inhabitants of Chehaw by U. S. cavalry on April 23, 1818.

Cozzens, Peter. A Brutal Reckoning: Andrew Jackson, the Creek Indians, and the Epic War for the American South. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2023.

Crane, Verner W. "The Origin of the Name of the Creek Indians," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, v. 5, no. 3, (1918), pp. 339-342.

(Creek)Indians: Alabama-Coushatta. New York: Garland Publishing Co., 1974. Testimony before the Indian Claims Commission, docket no. 226. Contents listed separately in this bibliography.

Crider, Robert Franklin. "The Borderland Floridas, 1815-1821: Spanish Sovereignty under Siege". Ph.D. Dissertation (History), Florida State University, 1979.

Cromer, Marie West. Modern Indians of Alabama: Remmants of the Removal. Birmingham, Ala.: Southern University Press, [1987] (copyrighted by the author 1984). Describes: the Creek Nation East of the Mississippi, Inc. (Poarch Band of Escambia County), the Star Clan of Lower Muscogee Creeks, Inc., and the Ma-Chis Lower Creeks of Coffee County plus the Alabama Indian Affairs Commission.

Cummings, William David. "�The Indians May Be Led, But will Not Be Drove," The Creek Indians Struggle for Control of Its Own Destiny, 1783-1794." Ph'D Dissertation, North Dakota State University, 2016.Online, https://library.ndsu.edu/ir/handle/10365/25818.

Cunningham, Frank. General Stand Watie's Confederate Indians. San Antonio, Texas: The Naylor Company, 1959. While Stand Watie was a member of the Cherokee Tribe, this study is a survey, with a strong partisan focus on the Confederate forces, of the participation of members of the Five Civilized Tribes in the Civil War.

Cutrer, Thomas W. "'The Tallapoosa Might Truly Be Called the River of Blood': Major Alexander McCulloch and the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, March 27, 1813." Alabama Review, v. 43(1990), pp. 35-39. Includes a short letter from McCulloch describing the battle.


Davis, Karl. "The Founding of Tensaw: Kinship, Community, Trade, and Diplomacy in the Creek Nation." IN Coastal Encounters: The Transformation of the Gulf South in the Eighteenth Century. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2007.

____. "'Remember Fort Mims:' Reinterpreting the Origins of the Creek War." Journal of the Early Republic, v. 22 no. 4 (2002), pp. 611-636. Describes the emergence of the Tensaw community and its effect on tensions in the Creek nation, leading finally to the attack on Fort Mims.

Debo, Angie. See also Section 1.

____. Tulsa: From Creek Town to Oil Capital. Norman: University of Oklahoma, 1943. Much of this small volume (122 p.) is devoted to Tulsa as a Creek town.

Dees, Deidra Suwanee. "The Muscogee Education Movement: Stories Told by an Elder." The Diversity Factor, v. 11, no. 4 (Fall 2003), pp. 16-21. Originally published an an ejournal at http://diversityfactor.rutgers.edu/. As of March 2013 available from: MasterFILE Complete, Ipswich, MA. Database from EBSCOhost. Abstract: "Focuses on statements given by Roberta McGhee Sells, also known as Aunt Bert, an activist in Muscogee Education Movement, a movement initiated by native Americans of the Poarch Muscogee or Creek Nation in Escambia County, Alabama, during 1930's and 1940's demanding that their children be given equal access to public school education..."

Denham, James M. "Denys Rolle and Indian Policy in British East Florida." Gulf Coast Historical Review, v. 7, no. 2 (Spring 1992), pp. 31-43.

DeRosier, Arthur H. Jr. "The Destruction of the Creek Confederacy," IN Forked Tongues and Broken Treaties, edited by Donald E. Worcester. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1975, pp. 72-108.

DeVorsey, Louis. The Indian Boundary in the Southern Colonies, 1763-1775. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1966.

Dickens, Roy S. Jr. Archaeological Investigations at Horseshoe Bend, National Military Park, Alabama. (Special Publications of the Alabama Archaeological Society, no. 3.) Tuscaloosa: Alabama Archaeological Society, 1979. With contributions by Linda F. Carnes [and others] ; and appendices by Walter N. Dietzen, Joan C. Rupp.

Doan, James E. "How the Irish and Scots Became Indians: Colonial Traders and Agents and the Southeastern Tribes." IN Extended Family: Essays on Being Irish American from New Hibernia Review. Chester Springs, Pennsylvania: Dufour Editions, 2013 pp. 107-123. Looks at some of the better known m�tis families.

Donaldson, Michael E. "Removal of the Creek Indians, 1830-1837." Master's thesis, Lamar University, 1977.

Doster, James F. The Creek Indians and Their Florida Lands, 1740-1823. 2 v. New York: Garland Publishing Co., 1974. This book is based on Indian Claims Commission exhibits and the citations are to those exhibits in the court case by number. This often makes it very difficult to determine what is the original source of a statement.
See Identification of Indian Claims Commission Exhibits cited by Doster in this work.

Downes, Randolph C. "Creek-American Relations, 1790-1795." Journal of Southern History, v. 8, no. 3 (Aug 1942) pp.350-373.

Drain, Maud. "The History of the Education of the Creek Indians." M.A. Thesis (History), University of Oklahoma, 1928.

Dubcovsky, Alejandra. "One Hundred Sixty-One Knots, Two Plates, and One Emperor: Creek Information Networks in the Era of the Yamasee War." Ethnohistory, v. 59, no. 3 (2012), pp. 489-513. Examing the communications centering on and stemming from Emperor Brims of Coweta.

Durschlag, Richard. "The First Creek Resistance: Transformations in Creek Indian Existence and the Yamasee War, 1670 - 1730." Ph'D Dissertation. History, Duke University, 1995. Durschlag states that the "war was instigated and organized primarily by the Lower Creeks led by Brims, headman of Coweta." He refers to the war in this study as the Yamasee/Creek War. Part One covers the Mississippian origins of the Creeks, their coalescence, and the effects of European contact, especially disease. Part Two treats firearms, changing war patterns, and the Indian slave trade. Part Three discusses alliance with the English and then the final outbreak of the war.

Dysart, Jane E. "Another Road to Disappearance: Assimilation of Creek Indians in Pensacola, Florida, During the Nineteenth Century." Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 61, no. 1 (July 1982), pp. 37-48. Available online at https://palmm.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/ucf%3A25460. Sources cited include 1907-1908 applications "for the Eastern Cherokee enrollment in the mistaken belief that all Indians were included. Those applications, together with the testimony before the special claims commissioner who held hearings in Pensacola in 1908, provide extensive genealogical information."

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East, Don C. A Historical Analysis of the Creek Indian Hillabee Towns: And Personal Reflections on the Landscape and People of Clay County, Alabama. iUniverse, 2008.

Ellisor, John T. "Like So Many Wolves: Creek Removal in the Cherokee Country, 1835-1838." Journal of East Tennessee History, v. 71 (1999), pp. 1-24.

____. The Second Creek War: Interethnic Conflict and Collusion on a Collapsing Frontier. Lincoln: University of Neraska Press, 2010. A detailed study that goes far beyond describing military actions to look at the causes of the conflict and the various people involved. His research concludes that the war lasted much longer than the official dates.

Ethridge, Robbie. See also Section 1.

____. "Creating the Shatter Zone: Indian Slave Traders and the Collapse of the Southeastern Chiefdoms." IN Light on the Path: The Anthropology and History of the Southeastern Indians, ed. by Thomas J. Pluckhan and Robbie Ethridge, pp. 207-218. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2006. Ethridge includes the Creeks in her description of "militaristic slaving societies".

____. "Creeks and Americans in the Age of Washington." IN George Washington's South, ed. by Tamara Harvey and Greg O'Brien. Gainesville; University Press of Florida, 2004, pp. 278-312.


Fabel, Robin F. A.. "Lieutenant Thomas Campbell's Sojourn among the Creeks, November 1764-May 1765," by Robin F. A. Fabel and Robert R. Rea, Alabama Historical Quarterly, v. 36 (1974), pp. 97-111.

____. "St. Marks, Apalache and the Creeks," Gulf Coast Historical Review, v. 1, no. 2 (Spring 1986), pp. 4-22.

Fairbanks, Charles H. "Creek and Pre-Creek." IN: Archaeology of Eastern United States, ed. by James B. Griffin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952, pp.285-375. Also reprinted in Sturtevant, Creek Source Book.

_____. "Ethnographic Report on Royce Area 79: Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek." IN: Cherokee and Creek Indians, pp. 31-308 + maps. New York: Garland Publishing, 1974. Testimony before the Indian Claims Commission, docket no. 275. Royce Area 79 refers to a portion of the "north-central and northwest sections of Alabama just south of the Tennessee River."

Feest, Christian F. "Creek Towns in 1725," Ethnologische Zeitschrift Zurich, v. 1, (1974), pp. 161-175. An analysis of the list of Creek towns compiled in 1725 by Charlesworth Glover.

Fischer, LeRoy. "United States Indian Agents to the Five Civilized Tribes." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 51 (1973), pp. 34-36.

Fixico, Donald L. The Invasion of Indian Country in the Twentieth Century: American Capitalismn and Tribal Natural Resources, 2nd ed. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2011. Chapter 1: "Jackson Barnett and the Allotment Of Muscogee Creek Lands."

Flynt, Sean. "Lee and Susannah Compere," Baptist History and Heritage, March 22, 2008. Online at http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Lee and Susannah Compere.-a0184132772. Missionaries to the Creeks in the 1820s and 1830s, the Compere's became involved in both the controversy over slavery and over the cession of Creek lands. Some of their letters and reports may be found in the correspondence of the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society (see WorldCat accession no. 34075296) and in issues of the American Baptist Missionary Magazine. See Primary Sources.

Forbes, Gerald. "The International Conflict for the Lands of the Creek Confederacy." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 14 (1936), pp. 478-498.

Foreman, Carolyn Thomas. "Augusta Robertson Moore: A Sketch of Her Life and Times." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 13 (1935), pp. 399-420. (See also the entry in Section 4, Biography for her husband, Napoleon Bonaparte Moore.)

Foreman, Grant. Advancing the Frontier, 1830-1860. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1933. The southeastern tribes after their move west.

____. The Five Civilized Tribes: Cherokee, Chickasaw Choctaw, Creek, Seminole. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1934. The Oklahoma tribes from 1830-1860.

____. Indian Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1932. Revised edition, 1953. Focuses on 1830-1840.

____. Indians and Pioneers: The Story of the American Southwest before 1830. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1930. Revised edition, 1936. The "pioneers" from the East include Creeks.

Foster, H. Thomas II. Archaeology of the Lower Muscogee Creek Indians, 1715-1836. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2007. With contributions by Mary Theresa Bonhage-Freund and Lisa O'Steen. The Lower Crreks are those who lived along the lower Chattahoochee and Flint River watersheds. "This investigation will synthesize all known archaeological research at Lower Muscogee Creek sites." As Foster points out, much of the research on the Creeks has been done for cultural management project reports (a few included in this bibliography), but little of this literature has been formally published.

____. "Evidence of Historic Creek Indian Migration from a Regional and Direct Historic Analysis of Ceramic Types," Southeastern Archaeology, v. 23, no. 1 (2004), pp. 65-84. Analysis of pottery from all known Lower Creek archeological sites from the Lawson Field phase, 1715-1830.

Frank, Andrew K. Creeks & Southerners: Biculturalism on the Early American Frontier. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2005. A study of mixed Creek-European families and individuals during the pre-removal period, their accomodation to living between two cultures, and the response of the members of those cultures to them. Chapter 6 focuses on Tustunnuggee Hutkee (William McIntosh Jr.) and "the limits of dual identities".

____. ""A Peculiar Breed of Whites": Race, Culture and Identity in the Creek Confederacy." Ph'D Dissertation, University of Florida, 1998.

____. "Rise and Fall of William McInstosh: Authority and Identity on the Early American Frontier." Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 86, no. 1 (Spring 2002) pp. 18-48.

____. "Taking the State Out: Seminoles and Creeks in Late Eighteenth-Century Florida." Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 84, no. 1 (2005), pp. 10-27.

Fretwell, Mark E. Benjamin Hawkins in the Chattahoochee Valley, 1798. A Correlation of Hawkins' Probable Route with Present Locations in Russell, Lee and Chambers Counties, Alabama and Troup and Heard Counties, Georgia. (Bulletin 1.) West Point, Ga.: Valley Historical Association, 1954,

____. This So Remote Frontier: The Chattahoochee Country of Alabama and Georgia. Tallahassee: Rose Printing Co., 1980. A publication of the Historic Chattahoochee Commission.


Gaillard, Frye. As Long As the Waters Flow: Native Americans in the South and East. Winston-Salem: John F. Blair, 1998. This combination of Frye's text and fine photos by Carolyn DeMeritt makes an excellent introduction to the topic of present-day Indians in this region. The Poarch Creeks receive extensive coverage.

Gallay, Alan. The Formation of a Planter Elite: Jonathan Bryan and the Southern Colonial Frontier. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1989. Chapter 6, "Dreams of Empire: Jonathan Bryan and the Creek Indians."

Gannett, Henry. A Gazetteer of Indian Territory. (U. S. Geological Bulletin no. 248.) Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1905. Location for each place is given by Indian nation.

Garrison, Tim Alan. "Beyond Worcester: The Alabama Supreme Court and the Sovereignty of the Creek Nation." Journal of the Early Republic, v. 19 (1999), pp. 423-450. The importance of Caldwell vs. Alabama [1831], ostensibly a simple murder case, in the legal and political drive to remove the Creeks from Alabama.

Gatschet, Albert S. A Migration Legend of the Creek Indians with a Linguistic, Historic and Ethnographic Introduction. 2 vols. Vol. 1, Philadelphia: D. G. Brinton, 1884. (Brinton's Library of Aboriginal American Literature, no. 4); vol. 2, St Louis, Mo.: printed for the author, 1888. Reprinted in one volume, New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1969. Contains a glossary as well as a list of towns and much other historical information.

____. "Towns and Villages of the Creek Confederacy in the XVIII. and XIX. Centuries." Publications of the Alabama Historical Society, Miscellaneous Collections, v. 1, pp. 386-414. Reprinted in Sturtevant, Creek Source Book.

Goff, John H. "The Path to Oakfuskee: Upper Trading Route in Alabama to the Creek Indians," Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 39 (1955), pp. 152-171.

____. "The Path to Oakfuskee: Upper Trading Route in Georgia to the Creek Indians," Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 39 (1955), pp. 1-36.

Good, Mary Elizabeth. "A Comparison of Glass Beads from Upper Creek Indian Towns in the Southeast and in Oklahoma," IN Proceedings of the 1982 Glass Trade Bead Conference, edited by Charles F. Hayes III. Rochester Museum and Science Center, (Research Records 16), 1983, p. 159-166. References, p. 259-282. Provides background information on Upper Creek settlements in Oklahoma. Online, https://www.academia.edu/39940713/Mary_Elizabeth_Good_A_Comparison_of_Glass_Beads_from_Upper_Creek_Indian_Towns_in_the_Southeast_and_in_Oklahoma.

Grant, Ethan A. "Fort Toulouse and the North American Southeast, 1700-1764." Gulf Coast Historical Review, v. 7, no. 2 (Spring 1992), pp. 6-15. Summary article which outlines the situation between the French and English in this period and discusses the relationship of the French to the Alabamas (Creeks).

Grantham, Bill. Creation Myths and Legends of the Creek Indians. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002. Part 1 provides historical background including detailed distinctions between the various groups regarded as Creek. Part 2 collects the myths including some previously unpublished.

Graves, William H. "Indian Soldiers for the Gray Army: Confederate Recruitment in Indian Territory." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 69 (1991/92), pp. 134-145.

Green, Michael D. "The Creek Confederacy in the American Revolution: Cautious Participants." IN Anglo-Spanish Confrontation on the Gulf Coast During the American Revolution, ed. by William S. Coker and Robert R. Rea. Pensacola, Florida: Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference, 1982, pp. 54-75.

____. "Federal-State Conflict in the Administration of Indian Policy: Georgia, Alabama, and the Creeks, 1824-1834." Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Iowa, 1973.

____. The Politics of Indian Removal: Creek Government and Society in Crisis. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982. Focuses on period after War of 1812.

____. See also Section 1.

Grinde, Donald A. Jr. and Taylor, Quintard. "Red vs Black: Conflict and Accommodation in the Post Civil War Indian Territory, 1865-1907." American Indian Quarterly, v. 8 (1984), pp. 211-229.

By author: A-B-C-D--E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P--R-S-T--U - V--W-XYZ


Haan, Richard L. "The 'Trades Do's Not Flourish As Formerly': The Ecological Origins of the Yamassee War of 1715." Ethnohistory, v. 28 (1981), pp. 341-358. The author describes this war as the event which "catalyzed the emergence of the Creek Confederacy".

Haas, Mary R. "Creek Inter-Town Relations," American Anthropologist,, v. 42 (1940), pp. 479-489. Describes the relationship of the ball game known as the "match game" to the status of "Red" and "White" towns in Creek society.

Hahn, Steven C. See also Section 1.

____. "The Cussita Migration Legend: History, Ideology, and the Politics of Mythmaking." IN Light on the Path: The Anthropology and History of the Southeastern Indians, ed. by Thomas J. Pluckhan and Robbie Ethridge, pp. 57-93. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2006. An interesting analysis of this account as a political document and device of its time, 1735, and how it relates to the history of the Cowetas.

____. "'The Indians That Live about Pon Pon': John and Mary Musgrove and the Making of a Creek Indian Community in South Carolina, 1717-1732," IN Creating and Contesting Carolina: Proprietary Era Histories, ed. by Michelle LeMaster and Bradford J. Wood, pp. 343-366. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2013.

____. "The Mother of Necessity: Carolina, the Creek Indians, and the Making of a New Order in the American Southeast, 1670-1763" IN The Transformation of the Southern Indians, 1540-1760, ed. by Robbie Ethridge and Charles Hudson. (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, c2002). Pp. 79-114, notes on pp. 285-289.

Halbert, H[enry]. S. and Ball, T[imothy]. H. The Creek War of 1813 and 1814, ed. by Frank L. Owsley Jr. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1995. Originally published in 1895; this edition adds notes and an index. Also an online copy of the 1895 edition. Internet at: https://archive.org/details/creekwarand00ballgoog/page/n12.

____. "Indian Land Cessions in Alabama." Arrow Points, v. 7, no. 1 (1923), pp. 6-10.

Hale, Douglas. "Rehearsal for Civil War: The Texas Cavalry in the Indian Territory, 1861." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 68 (1990/91), pp. 228-265. Five Texas regiments vs. Opothle Yahola and his neutralists.

Hall, Joseph. "Anxious Alliances: Apalachicola Efforts to Survive the Slave Trade, 1638-1705." IN Indian Slavery in Colonial America ed. by Alan Gallay. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2009, pp. 147-184. Describes the efforts of thirteen towns to fend off slave traders by alliances with the Yamasees and the English, events leading up to the formation of the Creek "Confederacy."

Halley, David J., ed. Ocmulgee Archaeology, 1936-1986. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994. This bibliography does not, in general, deal with archaeology and the vexed scholarly question -- still very much a matter for debate -- of the prehistoric antecedents of the historic Creeks. I have listed one essay by Waselkov, which deals with the historic period, separately in this bibliography.. However I would recommend this title as a whole as a starting point for those who are interested in this subject, if just for its extensive bibliography.

Hamer, Friedrich P. "Indian Traders, Land and Power: A Comparative Study of George Galphin on the Southern Frontier and Three Northern Traders". M. A. Thesis, University of South Carolina, 1982.

Hann, John H. "Late Seventeenth-Century Forbears of the Lower Creeks and Seminoles," Southeastern Archaeology, v. 15 no. 1 (Summer 1996), pp. 66-80. A very useful article that clarifies place names and discusses the movements of towns and peoples. Includes a map. Recommended for anyone doing research in this area.

Harden, Edward J. The Life of George M. Troup. Savannah, Ga.: E. J. Purse, 1859. Troup was governor of Georgia and a cousin of Creek chief William McIntosh (although it appears that the cousins were not personally acquainted). This is not a scholarly biography of the type today's readers are accustomed to. On the plus side, it quotes huge quantities of primary sources.

Harmon, Alexandra. "American Indians and Land Monopolies in the Gilded Age," Journal of American History, v. 90, no. 1 (June 2003), p. 106-133. The conflict between methods of land ownership -- individual vs. collective -- within tribal society as well as within national politics and attitudes.

Harrell, Kevin T. "The Terrain of Factionalism: How Upper Creek Communities Negotiated the Recourse of Gulf Coast Trade, 1763-1780." Alabama Review, v. 68, no. 1 (Jan 2015) pp. 74-113.

Harring, Sidney L. "Crazy Snake and the Creek Struggle for Sovereignty: The Native American Legal Culture and Native Law." American Journal of Legal History, v. 34 (1990), pp. 365-380.

Harris, W. Stuart. Dead Towns of Alabama. University: University of Alabama Press, 1977. Includes 83 Indian towns, 47 fort sites, and 112 settlements of the colonial, territorial or state periods. Has index, footnotes, bibliography and a list by county. Very handy little publication.

Hassig, Ross. "Internal Conflicts in the Creek War of 1813-1814." Ethnohistory, v. 21 (1974), pp. 251-271.

Haveman, Christopher D."The Indomitable Women of the Creek Removal Era: 'Someone Must Have Told Her That I Meant to Run Away With Her,'" IN Lisa Lindquist Dorr and Susan Ashmore, eds., Alabama Women: Their Lives and Times. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2017.

____. ""Last Evening I Saw the Sun Set for the Last Time": The 1832 Treaty of Washington and the Transfer of the Creeks' Alabama Land to White Ownership," Native South, Vol. 5 (2012) pp. 61-94.

____. Rivers of Sand: Creek Indian Emigration, Relocation, and Ethnic Cleansing in the American South. Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 2016. A prize-winning study.

____. "'With Great Difficulty and Labour': The Emigration of the McIntosh Party of Creek Indians, 1828-1828," Chronicles of Oklahoma, v.85, no.4 (Winter 2007-08), pp. 468-490.

Hawkins, John D. "A biographical sketch and incidents of the life and services of the late Col[onel] Benjamin Hawkins Superintendent of all the Indians South of the Ohio by his nephew John D. Hawkins of Franklin County No[rth] Carolina, 1848." Manuscript, 32 p. Manuscript held by the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, The University of Georgia Libraries, Keith Read, box 12, folder 36, document 01. Online in Digital Library of Georgia, https://dlg.usg.edu/record/dlg_zlna_krc023?canvas=0&x=1155&y=1827&w=14782.

Hawkins, Philip C. "Creek Schism: Seminole Genesis Revisited." Master's thesis, University of South Florida, 2009. Online at https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd/2004/.

Haynes, Joshua. "Patrolling the Border: Theft and Violence on the Creek-Georgia Frontier, 1770-1796." Ph'D Dissertation (History), University of Georgia, 2013.

Heard, J. Norman. Handbook of the American Frontier: Four Centuries of Indian-White Relationships. Volume I. The Southeastern Woodlands. (Native American Resources Series, no. 1) Short entries identify people, including some Creek chiefs, places, tribes and groups. Useful way to look up a passing mention in a text.

Henri, Florette. The Southern Indians and Benjamin Hawkins, 1796-1816. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986.

Hewitt, J. N. B. "Notes on the Creek Indians," ed. by. John R. Swanton. Bulletin [Bureau of American Ethnology], no. 123, (1939), pp. 119-159. ( Anthropological papers no 10). Reprinted in Sturtevant, Creek Source Book. Primarily cultural information gathered from interviews with Legus F. Perryman and Pleasant Porter in the 1880s. Available online in Archive.org.

Hill, James L. "'Bring Them What They Lack:' Spanish-Creek Exchange and Alliance Making in a Maritime Border Land, 1763-1783." Early American Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, v. 12, no. 1 (Winter 2014), pp. 36-67. Creek contact with Cuba.

Hinds, Roland. "White Intruders in the Creek Nation, 1830-1907." M.A. Thesis (History), University of Oklahoma, 1936.

Holátte Cvpvkke see Clark, C. B.

Holland, James W. Andrew Jackson and the Creek War: Victory at the Horseshoe. University: University of Alabama Press, 1968.

Hollingsworth, Dixon. Indians on the Savannah River. Sylvania, Ga.: Partridge Pond Press, 1976. The title of this 83 page pamphlet is somewhat misleading; the contents include various notes and maps on southeastern tribes.

Hook, Jonathan B. The Alabama-Coushatta Indians. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1997. A study of the concept of "Indian identity" with the Alabama-Coushatta of Texas, once members of the Creek confederacy, as the focus.

Hryniewicki,Richard J. "The Creek Treaty of November 15, 1827." Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 52, no. 1 (December 1964) pp. 1-15.

Hudson, Angela Pulley. Creek Paths and Federal Roads: Indians, Settlers, and Slaves and the Making of the American South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010. Roads as places.

Hudson, Charles, and Tessar, Carmen Chaves, eds. The Forgotten Centuries: Indians and Europeans in the American South, 1521-1704. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994. Collection of essays.

Hudson, Charles. "The Genesis of Georgia's Indians," IN Forty Years of Diversity: Essays on Colonial Georgia, ed. by Harvey H. Jackson and Phinizy Spalding. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1984.

____. See also Section 1.

Humphrey, Charles Manley. "Removal of the Creek Indians to Oklahoma." Master's thesis, Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, 1933.

Hurt, Douglas A. "Defining American Homelands: A Creek Nation Example, 1828-1907," Journal of Cultural Geography, v. 21, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 2003), pp. 19-43. The author uses the Creek (Muscogee) Nation in Indian Territory to demonstrate the concept of "homeland" and its defining characteristics.

____. "The Shaping of a Creek (Muscogee) Homeland in Indian Territory, 1828-1907." Ph'D Dissertation (Geography), University of Oklahoma, 2000.


Innes. Pamela. "Creek in the West," IN Handbook of North American Indians, v. 14, Southeast, ed. by Raymond D. Fogelson. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution, 2004.


Jacobson, Daniel. "Alabama-Coushatta Indians: Ethnological Report and Statement of Testimony." IN: (Creek)Indians: Alabama-Coushatta, pp.25-178. Testimony before the Indian Claims Commission, docket no. 226.

_____. "The Origin of the Koasati Community of Louisiana." Ethnohistory, v. 7 (1960), pp.97-120. Koasati has also been rendered as Costehe or Coste (Spanish), Cou-sau-dee (Creek town), Couchittes, and Cochattie.

Jackson, Jason Baird, ed. Yuchi Indian Histories Before the Removal Era. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2012. A revisionist history of the Yuchi (Euchee) tribe. Contents: Introduction: On Studying Yuchi History by Jason Baird Jackson. Deep Time and Genetic Relationships: Yuchi Linguistic History Revisited by Mary S. Linn. Enigmatic Origins: On the Yuchi of the Contact Era by John E. Worth. Reconsidering Chestowee: The 1713 Raid in Regional Perspective by Brett Riggs. Yuchi in the Lower Savannah River Valley: Historical Context and Archaeological Confirmation by Daniel T. Elliott. The Yuchi Indians along the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers (1715-1836): A Synthesis by H. Thomas Foster II. "They Look upon the Yuchis as Their Vassals": An Early History of Yuchi-Creek Political Relations by Steven C. Hahn. Reconsidering Coalescence: Yuchi and Shawnee Survival Strategies in the Colonial Southeast by Stephen Warren. To the Backcountry and Back Again: The Yuchi's Search for Stability in the Eighteenth-Century Southeast by Joshua Piker. A Band of Outsiders: Yuchi Identity among the Nineteenth-Century Florida Seminoles by Brent R. Weisman.

Jenkins, Ned J. "Tracing the Origins of the Early Creeks, 1050 - 1700 CE," IN Mapping the Mississippian Shatter Zone: The Colonial Indian Slave Trade and Regional Instability in the American South. Edited by Robbie Ethridge and Sheri M. Shuck-Hall. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2009, pp. 188-249.

Joplin, Hattie S. "A History of the Creek Indians." M.A. Thesis (History), University of Oklahoma, 1917.

Juricek, John T. Colonial Georgia and the Creeks : Anglo-Indian Diplomacy on the Southern Frontier, 1733-1763. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 2010. A very detailed study. The author edited a compiled volume of Georgia treaties. See Primary Sources.

____. Endgame for Empire: British-Creek Relations in Georgia and Vicinity, 1763 - 1776. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 2015.

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Kelton, Paul. Epidemics & Enslavement: Biological Catastrophe in the Native Southeast, 1492-1715. Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 2007. Kelton argues "that English commerce in Native slaves in particular facilitated the spread of smallpox and made indigenous peoples especially susceptible to infection and mortality as intense violence forced malnourished refugees to huddle in germ-ridden, compact settlements. By 1715 the Native population had plummeted." This study looks at the whole Southeast and bears on the formation of the Creeks, Catawbas, and Cherokees, providing important background.

Kersey, Harry A. Jr. "The Cherokee, Creek, and Seminole Responses to Removal: A Comparison," IN: Indians of the Lower South: Past and Present, ed. by John K. Mahon. Pensacola: Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference, 1975.

Kimball, Christopher D. Seminole & Creek War Chronology: Seminole & Creek War Battles & Events, 3rd ed. N. p., self-published, 2018. Has bibliography, but no index. Covers 1513 - 1859. Includes many minor skirmishes.

King, Adam. "Creek Chiefdoms at the Temporal Edge of the Mississippian World." Southeastern Archaeology, v. 21, no. 2 (2002), pp. 221-226.

____. "The Historic Period Transformation of Mississippian Societies." IN Light on the Path: The Anthropology and History of the Southeastern Indians, ed. by Thomas J. Pluckhan and Robbie Ethridge, pp. 179-195. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2006. King compares "Mississippian and Creek social formations", viewing the two as "part of a single stream of time" that shared key principles of society and economy.

Knight, Vernon James Jr. "The Formation of the Creeks." IN: Forgotten Centuries, ed. by Charles Hudson pp.373-392. Views the Creek Confederacy as a politico-military alliance. Much reliance on archeological evidence.

____. "Puzzles of Creek Social Organization in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries," Ethnohistory, v. 65, no. 3 (2018), pp. 373-389. Online at https://www.academia.edu. Knight describes this article as a commentary on John Swanton's 1928 article, "Social Organization and Social Usages of the Creek Confederacy" (cited below).

_____. Tukabatchee: Archaeological Investigations at an Historic Creek Town, Elmore County, Alabama, 1984. (Report of Investigations 45, Office of Archaeological Research, Alabama State Museum of Natural History) N.p.: University of Alabama, 1985. The growth of this important town as revealed by both archaeological and documentary evidence. An important source for those interested in what "Creek life" was like especially in the historic period.

____. "A Voyage to the Mobile and Tomeh in 1700, with Notes on the Interior of Alabama," Journal of Alabama Archaeology, v. 27, no. 1 (1981), pp. 32-55. Translation from the French of a 1700 account by Charles Levasseur with extensive notes and commentary. Includes a list of towns of what we now refer to as the Upper Creeks. Available at Academia.edu.

Kokomoor, Kevin. ""Burning and Destroying All Before Them": Creeks and Seminoles on Georgia's Revolutionary Frontier," Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 98, no. 4 (2014), pp. 300-340. A detailed account. Online at https://www.jstor.org/stable/44735557.

____. "Creeks, Federalists, and the Idea of Coexistence in the Early Republic." Journal of Southern History, v. 81, no. 4 (2015), pp. 803-842. Events centering on the Treaty of New York and the meeting at Coleraine.


Lankford, George E. "Red and White: Some Reflections on Southeastern Symbolism." Southern Folklore, v. 50, no. 1 (1993), p. 53-80. An in-depth discussion of the red/white Muscogee town division and of the red/white cultural symbolism.

Lewis, David Jr. and Ann T. Jordan. Creek Indian Medicine Ways: The Enduring Power of Muskoke Religion. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2002. An account by a traditional Creek medicine man of his life and training combined with supplementary material by anthropologist Ann T. Jordan. Lewis's great-grandfather, Jackson Lewis, was one of Swanton's informants and this work provides a multi-generational comparison of the medicine tradition.

Lewis, Thomas M. N.. See Section 1.

Littlefield, Daniel F. Jr. Africans and Creeks: From the Colonial Period to the Civil War. (Contributions in AfroAmerican and African Studies, no. 47) Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1979.

Littlefield, Daniel F. and Underhill, Lonnie E. "The Crazy Snake Uprising of 1909: A Red, Black or White Affair." Arizona and the West, v. 20 (1978), p. 307-24.

____ and Parins, James W., ed. Native American Writing in the Southeast: An Anthology, 1875-1935. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1995. Includes writings by six authors identified as Muscogee: Joseph Bruner, Charles Gibson, William McCombs, Jesse J. McDermott, Alexander Lawrence Posey, Pleasant Porter. Also some pieces by James Roane Gregory, Yuchi. There is a biographical sketch of each author.

Lolley, Terry L. "Ethnohistory and Archaeology: a Map Method for Locating Historic Upper Creek Indian Towns and Villages," Journal of Alabama Archaeology, v. 42, no. 1 (June 1996), p.1-96.

Lomawaima, K. Tsianina. They Called It Prairie Light: The Story of Chilocco Indian School. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994. Chilocco was a federal boarding school which many Creeks attended. Much of this work is based on interviews with former students.


Marsh, Ralph Henry. "The History of Polk County, Texas Indians." IN: (Creek)Indians: Alabama-Coushatta, pp.257-361. Testimony before the Indian Claims Commission, docket no. 226.

Martin, Howard M. "Documents on the Alabama and Coushatta Tribes of Texas." IN: (Creek)Indians: Alabama-Coushatta, pp.179-256. Testimony before the Indian Claims Commission, docket no. 226. Alternative title: "Ethnohistorical Analysis of Documents Relating to the Alabama and Coushatta Tribes of the State of Texas."

Martin, Joel W. "Cultural Contact and Crises in the Early Republic: Native American Religious Renewal, Resistance, and Accomodation". IN Native Americans and the Early Republic, ed. by Frederick E Hoxie et al., pp. 226-258. Published for the United States Capitol Historical Society by the University Press of Virginia, 1999. This essay focuses on the Cherokees and Muscogees.

____. Sacred Revolt: The Muskogees' Struggle for a New World. Boston: Beacon Press, 1991.

____. "Southeastern Indians and the English Trade in Skins and Slaves." IN: The Forgotten Centuries, ed. by Charles Hudson, pp.304-324.

Martin, Mickey J. Bryant: A Creek Indian Nation Townsite, 2nd ed. Visalia, California:Fowble Press, 2012. Bryant, a now vanished town in Okmulgee County, Oklahoma, had two schools and a mixed population of Creeks and Whites. Information on local families and many photos.

Mason, Carol I. "Eighteenth Century Culture Change Among the Lower Creeks." Florida Anthropologist, v. 16 (1963), pp. 65-80. Focuses on the economic roles of men and women.

May, Katja. African Americans and Native Americans in the Creek and Cherokee Nations, 1830s to 1920s: Collision and Collusion. New York: Garland Publishing, 1996.

McAlister, Lyle N. "William Augustus Bowles and the State of Muscogee." Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 40, (1962), pp. 317-328.

McIntosh, Frances. "Social and Economic Conditions of the Creek Indians." M.S.W. Thesis, University of Oklahoma, 1943. Not history then, but it is now.

McIntosh, Kenneth Waldo. "Chitto Harjo, the Crazy Snakes and tthe Birth of Indian Political Activism in the Twentieth Century." Ph'D Dissertation, Texas Christian University, 1993.

Meares, Cecil. "When the Steamboat Monmouth Sank in the Mississippi, Creek Indian Passengers Paid the Price". Wild West, v. 11, no. 3 (Oct. 1998, pp. 10-12). In October 1837, the "worst pre-Civil War disaster" on the Mississippi killed over 300 Creeks being transported from New Orleans to the west.

Meek, Alexander B. Romantic Passages in Southwestern History, Including Orations, Sketches, and Essays. New York & Mobile: S. H. Goetzel & Co., 1857. This book is mentioned here because it and the author's Red Eagle: A Poem of the South (1855) are probably a major source of popular tales of the Creek War. Use with care and check against more recent and scholarly works!

Melcher, Jennifer. "Non-Local Natives � Identifying the Native American Groups of Pensacola�s British and Second Spanish Periods," Paper presented at the 72nd annual meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Nashville, TN, Nov. 19, 2021. Available at Academia.edu.

Miranda, Joseph. "Battles of Andrew Jackson: The Creek War & New Orleans." Strategy & Tactics, no. 346, May-June 2024, pp. 6-19. Article in this wargamer's magazine includes useful maps.

Morris, Michael P. The Bringing of Wonder: Trade and the Indians of the Southeast, 1700-1783. (Contributions in Comparative Colonial Studies, no. 36.) Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999. A study with much fascinating detail, especially on the Creeks and Cherokees. Chap. 3 is on Mary Musgrove and Nancy Ward.

____. George Galphin and the Transformation of the Georgia-South Carolina Backcountry. (New Studies in Southern History.) Lanham,Maryland: Lexington Books, 2015. A detailed study of the man who, as trader and agent, forged a relationship with the Creeks that influenced both the history of that nation and of the American Revolution in the South, this volume provides an excellent overview of this period.

____. See also Section 4, Musgrove.

Morton, Ohland. "The Political History of the Creek Indians Since the Civil War." M.A. Thesis (History), University of Oklahoma, 1929.

____. "Reconstruction in the Creek Nation." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 9 (1931), p. 171-179.

Murphree, Daniel S. "The Failure of Accommodation: British-Indian Relations in the Old Southwest, 1763-1783." M.A. Thesis (History), Florida State University, 1996.

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Nelson, Paul David. General James Grant: Scottish Soldier and Royal Governor of East Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993.

Nunez, Theron A. Jr. "Creek Nativisim and the Creek War of 1813-1814," Ethnohistory, v. 5 (1958), pp. 1-47, 131-175, 292-301.

____. See also Stiggins, George in Primary Sources.


O'Brien, Sean Michael. In Bitterness and in Tears: Andrew Jackson's Destruction of the Creeks and Seminoles. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2003. The history of the Creek War of 1813-1814 and the Seminole War of 1818.

O'Donnell, James H. III. "The Florida Revolutionary Indian Frontier: Abode of the Blessed or Field of Battle?" IN: Eighteenth-Century Florida: Life on the Frontier, ed. by Samuel Proctor, pp.60-74. John Stuart and his policies.

____. Southern Indians in the American Revolution. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1973.

____. See also Section 1.

Opler, Morris Edward. "The Creek 'Town' and the Problem of Creek Political Reorganization," IN Human Problems in Technological Change: A Casebook, ed. by Edward H. Spicer, p. 165-180. New York: Russell Safe Foundation, 1952.

Owen, Thomas M. "Indian Tribes and Towns in Alabama". Alabama Historical Quarterly, v. 12 (1950), pp. 118-241.

Owsley, Frank L. Jr. Struggle for the Gulf Borderlands: The Creek War and the Battle of New Orleans, 1812-1815. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1981.


Palmeter, Nicole L. Effects on Religion and Culture of the Muskogee Creek as a Result of the Indian Removal Act Through Archaeobotanical Analysis. (Capstone Research Paper, Spring 2017). Posted on Academia.edu.

Paredes, Anthony. "Back from Disappearance: The Alabama Creek Indian Community." IN: Southeastern Indians since the Removal Era, ed. by Walter L. Williams. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1979.

____. "Creek in the East Since Removal," IN Handbook of North American Indians, v. 14, Southeast, ed. by Raymond D. Fogelson. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution, 2004.

____ and Sandra K. Joos. "Economics, Optimism, and Community History: A Comparison of Rural Minnesotans and Eastern Creek Indians." Human Organization, v. 39, no. 2 (Summer 1980) pp. 142-152.

____. "The Emergence of Contemporary Eastern Creek Indian Identity." IN Social and Cultural Identity : Problems of Persistence and Change, (Southern Anthropological Society Proceedings no. 8), University of Georgia Press, 1974.

____. "Federal Recognition and the Poarch Creek Indians." IN: Indians of the Southeastern United States in the Late 20th Century, ed. by J. Anthony Paredes. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1992.

____. "The Folk Culture of the Eastern Creek Indians: Synthesis and Change. IN: Indians of the Lower South: Past and Present, ed. by John K. Mahon. Pensacola: Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference, 1975.

____. "New Uses for Old Ethnography: A Brief Social History of a Research Project with the Eastern Creek Indians, or How to Be an Applied Anthropologist Without Really Trying." Human Organization, v. 35, no. 3 (Fall 1976) pp. 315-320.

____ and Kenneth J. Plante. "A Reexamination of Creek Indian Population Trends: 1738-1832." American Indian Culture and Research Journal, v.6(4) (1982) pp. 3-28.

____. "Paradoxes of Modernism and Indianness in the Southeast." American Indian Quarterly, v. 19, no. 3 (Summer 1995) pp. 341-360.

____. "The Poarch Creeks: Florida's Third Tribe." Forum, the Magazine of the Florida Humanities Council, v. 16, no. 2, Fall 1992 pp. 24-29.

Patterson, Daniel Anthony. "Who Am I Now?: A Question of Creek Identity, 1830-1907." MA Thesis (History), Appalachian State University, 2013. An examination of "how historical circumstances during the nineteenth century prompoted a shift in the way one particular Native American group, the Creeks, based their identity."

Pavao-Zuckerman, Barnet. "Deerskins and Domesticates: Creek Subsistence and Economic Strategies in the Historic Period." American Antiquity, v. 72, no. 1 (2007), pp. 5-33. Online at https://www.academia.edu.

Peake, Ora Brooks. A History of the United States Indian Factory System, 1795-1822. Denver, Sage Books, 1954.

Pickett, Albert J. History of Alabama and Incidentally of Georgia and Mississippi from the Earliest Period. Originally pub. 1851; has been reprinted. Note the original publication date! Pickett's chapters on the DeSoto expedition and other early events have long since been eclipsed by later historical and archaeological research. However, since he came to Alabama in 1818 (at the age of eight) and knew many of the people (including the Indians) who participated in the Creek War, his material on that period is very important. Pickett made great efforts to interview survivors of the war. There is an online copy. Internet at: https://archive.org/details/historyofalabama03pick .

Piker, Joshua. See also Section 1.

____. "Colonists and Creeks: Rethinking the Pre-Revolutionary Southern Backcountry," Journal of Southern History, v. 70, no. 3 (August 2004), pp. 503-540. An examination of early conclusions and narratives on this subject, stressing the many socioeconomic ties between settlers and native societies.

____. Four Deaths of Acorn Whistler: Telling Stories in Colonial America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013. Acorn Whistler, a Creek chief was executed in 1752 for the murder of a group of Cherokees. Piker unearths competing accounts of the events surrounding the death of this Creek Indian. Told from the perspectives of a colonial governor, a Creek Nation military leader, local Native Americans, and British colonists, each story speaks to issues that transcend the condemned man�s fate.

____.. ""Peculiarly Connected": The Creek Town of Oakfuskee and the Study of Colonial American Communities, 1708-1783." Ph'D Dissertation, Cornell University, 1998

____. "'White & Clean" & Contested: Creek Towns and Trading Paths in the Aftermath of the Seven Years War, " Ethnohistory, v. 50, no. 2, Spring 2003, pp. 315-347. Examines "the course of the disagreement within Upper Creek society over the proper orientation --southern versus eastern -- of the Creek's relationship with the British." Stresses the importance of towns rather than larger social groupings in Creek society.

Posey, Alexander. The Fus Fixico Letters, ed. by Daniel F. Littlefield Jr. and Carol A. Petty Hunter. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1933. This book is a collection of Posey's dialect humor columns and, as a literary work, would be outside the scope of this bibliography. However, the voluminous introduction, notes, and bibliography provide as much information for any historian of the place and period as a typical journal article.

Pound, Merritt B. Benjamin Hawkins, Indian Agent. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1951.

Proctor, Samuel, ed. Eighteenth-Century Florida and Its Borderlands. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1975. Collection of essays.

____, ed. Eighteenth-Century Florida and the Revolutionary South. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1978. Collection of essays.

____, ed. Eighteenth-Century Florida: Life on the Frontier. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1976. Collection of essays.

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Ramsey, William L. "Something Cloudy in Their Looks: The Origins of the Yamasee War Reconsidered," Journal of American History, v. 90, no. 1, (June 2003), p. 44-75.

____. The Yamasee War: A Study of Culture, Economy, and Conflict in the Colonial South. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2008. In the first book length study of this conflict Ramsey concludes that the events of 1715 to 1718 had much to do with the development of the "Old South" and its society as we view it today. The Indians of the Southeast including the Creeks are presented as they deal with complex issues of war, trade, and slavery. This is an important reappraisal of long standing thought on the events of the time period and their genesis.

Reid, John Alden. "'The Carnage Was Dreadful': The Battle of Horseshoe Bend." Journal of the Indian Wars v. 1, no. 2 (1999), pp. 21-30.

____. "Prelude to Horseshoe Bend: The Battles of Emuckfaw and Enotochopco." Journal of the Indian Wars v. 1, no. 2 (1999), pp. 1-20.

Rentz, Thomas Henry Sr. The Public Life of David B. Mitchell. M. A. Thesis, University of Georgia 1955. Mitchell was governor of Georgia and then Creek Indian agent and remains a controversial figure. However, the author of this thesis (who had apparently purchased a house built by Mitchell) has written a very laudatory work.

Reynolds, Alfred Wade. "The Alabama-Tombigbee Basin in International Relations, 1701-1763." Ph'D Dissertation, University of California, 1928.

Richards, Lynne, Farr, Cheryl, & Gaitros, Cyria. "Environmental Influences on Dress: Creek Nation, 1885-1900." Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, v. 25 (1997), pp. 369-389. A detailed comparison of the clothing worn by women in the Creek Nation (Oklahoma) to that worn by women in the eastern states showed that the Creeks' clothing was more comfortable and practical despite their exposure to current fashion news. The authors concluded that "these differences reflected the rigorous Creek Nation environment...substantiated that the mere promotion of a fashion product to a targeted market does not ensure consumer acquisition or purchase behavior..." Highly useful for anyone doing historic presentations/reenactments for this period.

Rindfleisch, Bryan C. "Cherokee Kings and Creek Kings; Intra-Indigenous Connections and Interactions in the Eighteenth-Century American South." Journal of Southern History, v.85, no. 4 (2019), pp. 769-802.

____. George Galphin's Intimate Empire: the Creek Indians, Family, and Colonialism in Early America. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2019.

____. "'Our Lands Are Our Life and Breadth:' Coweta, Cusseta, and the Struggle for Creek Territory and Sovereignty During the American Revolution." Ethnohistory, v. 60 , no. 4 (2013), pp.581-603.

____. "The "Owner of the Town Ground, Who Overrules All When on the Spot": Escotchaby of Coweta and the Politics of Personal Networking in Creek Country, 1740-1780." Native South, v. 9 (2016) pp. 54-88.

Riordan, Patrick. "Seminole Genesis: Native Americans, African Americans, and Colonists on the Southern Frontier from Prehistory Through the Colonial Era." Ph'D Dissertation, (History,) Florida State University, 1996.

Robbins, Lester E. "The Persistence of Traditional Religious Practices among Creek Indians." Ph'D Dissertation, Southern Methodist University, 1976.

Roberts, Gary. "The Chief of State and the Chief." American Heritage, v. 26 (1975), pp. 28-33, 86-89. Washington, McGillivray and the Treaty of 1790.

Roberts, Joan. "Missions and Missionary Activities among the Creek Indians, 1832-1900." M.A. Thesis (History), University of Oklahoma, 1939.

Routh, E. C. "Henry Frieland Buckner." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 14 (1936) p. 456-466. A Baptist missionary (d. 1879).

Rowland, Eron (Mrs. Dunbar). Andrew Jackson's Campaign against the British, or The Mississippi Territory in the War of 1812, Concerning the Military Operations of the Americans, Creek Indians, British, and Spanish, 1813-1815. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1926. HathiTrust.

Royce, Charles C. "Indian Land Sessions in the United States." IN Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1896-97, by J.W. Powell, Director, part 2, p. 521-964. [Published as U. S. Congressional Serial Set No. 4105.] Washington: Government Printing Office, 1899. Digitized at the Library of Congress site, https://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwss-ilc.html. This compilation contains two tables and 67 maps along with an introduction by Cyrus Thomas. Search by both Creek and Muscogee in the list of tribes.

Rucker, Brian R. "West Florida's Creek Indian Crisis of 1837." Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 69, no. 3 (Jan. 1991), pp. 315-334. Available online at https://palmm.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/ucf%3A25495.

["Russell County"] Alabama Historical Quarterly, v. 21 (1959), entire issue. Special issue on the county; much on the Creeks.


Sameth, Sigmund. "Creek Negroes: A Study of Race Relations." M.A. Thesis (Anthropology), University of Oklahoma, 1940.

Sanz Tapia, Angel. "Las relaciones entre Cuba y los Indios de la Florida Oriental durante el dominio Ingles (1763-1783)," pp. 281-308 IN La influencia de España en el Caribe, la Florida, y Luisiana, 1500-1800, ed. Antonio Acosta Rodriguez and Juan Marchena Fernandez. Madrid: Instituto de Cooperación Iberomericana, 1983.

Sattler, Richard A. "Cowboys and Indians: Creek and Seminole Stock Raising, 1700�1900." American Indian Culture and Research Journal, v. 22, no. 33 (1998): 79-99.

____. "Women's Status among the Muskogee and Cherokee", p. 214-229, IN Women and Power in Native North America, edited by Laura F. Klein and Lillian A. Ackerman. University of Oklahoma Press, 1995. An important article bearing on the frequent conception that among the Southeatern tribes, matrilineal meant matriarchal. Sattler says that Muskogee women "generally lacked direct formal access to power...within a generally male-dominated and male-controlled system," in contrast to Cherokee women. He links this difference to economic factors and control of agricultural resources.

Saunt, Claudio. See also Section 1 and Section 4.

____. " "Domestick...Quiet Being Broke",: Gender Conflict among Creek Indians in the Eighteenth Century", p. 151-174 IN Contact Points: American Frontiers from the Mohawk Valley to the Mississippi, 1750-1830, edited by Andrew R. L. Cayton and Fredrika J. Teute. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

____. "'The English Has Now a Mind to Make Slaves of Them All': Creeks, Seminoles and the Problem of Slavery." American Indian Quarterly, v. 22 (1998) pp. 157-181.

____. "Taking Account of Property: Stratification among the Creek Indians in the Early Nineteenth Century." William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, v. 57 (2000), pp. 733-760.

____. "Telling Stories: The Political Uses of Myth and History in the Cherokee and Creek Nations," Journal of American History, v. 93 (2006), pp. 673-697.

Savage, William W. Jr. "Creek Colonization in Oklahoma." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 54 (1876/77) pp. 34-43. Summarizes events leading to removal; reaches Oklahoma only on p. 39.

Schroder, Lloyd E. The History & Material Culture of the Muscogee Creek in Alabama and Georgia. N. p.: Lulu Press, 2016. "Based in part on the work of Dr. R. P. Burke, M. D. during the 1930s following excavations done on at least ten sites..." Atasi, Fort Toulouse (a village near the French fort), Fusihatchi, Huithlewalli, Koasati, Muklassa, Taskigi, Tukabahachi, Tulsa, and Weoka." Author has added material from Lower Creek sites in Georgia. Drawings and photos of pottery. No index.

Schwartzman, Grace M. and Susan K. Barnard. "A Trail of Broken Promises: Georgians and Muscogee/Creek Treaties, 1796-1826." Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 75, no. 4 (Winter 1991), pp. 697-718.

Severens, Martha R. and Staples, Kathleen. "Benjamin Hawkins and the Creek Indians: A Study in Jefferson's Assimilation Policy." Journal of Early Southern Decorative Arts, v. 29, no. 2, Winter 2003, pp. 1-38. Has appendix: "Translation of a Letter from Karsten Petersen to Brother Benzien." Discusses historical context and significance of a painting Benjamin Hawkins and the Creek Indians in the collection of the Greenville [SC] County Museum of Art. Reproduced here, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Benjamin_Hawkins_and_the_Creek_Indians.jpg. Petersen was a Moravian who worked at Hawkin's agency on the Flint River.

Shuck-Hall, Sheri Marie. Journey to the West: The Alabama and Coushatta Indians, (Civilization of the American Indian no. 256.) Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008. The history of these two groups, now in Texas and Lousiana, covering a series of moves and their association with the Creeks.

Simms, Beaulah. Hokti's Recipe Book of Creek Indian Foods. Okmulgee, Oklahoma: Creek Productions Co., 1970. Available online at https://mvskokecountry.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/hokti.pdf.

Smith, Daniel M. "James Seagrove and the Mission to Tuckaubatchee, 1793." Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 44 (1960) pp. 41-55.

Smith, Marvin T. "Aboriginal Population Movements in the Early Historic Period Interior Southeast." IN Powhatan's Mantle: Indians in the Colonial Southeast, rev. and expanded ed., ed. by Gregory Waselkov. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 2006. This essay was updated for this edition.

Smith, Marvin T. See also Waselkov, Gregory A.

Snapp, J. Russell. John Stuart and the Struggle for Empire on the Southern Frontier. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996.

Snyder, Christina. "Conquered Enemies, Adopted Kin, and Owned People: The Creek Indians and Their Captives." Journal of Southern History, v. 73 (2007) pp. 255-288. Changing definitions and attitudes regarding captivity and slavery throughout the late 1700s were influenced by traditional practices, personal experiences, and the pressures of white and black expansion into Indian country.

Southerland, Henry DeLeon Jr. and Brown, Jerry Elijah. The Federal Road through Georgia, the Creek Nation, and Alabama, 1806-1836. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1989.

Speck, Frank G. "The Creek Indians of Taskigi Town." Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, v. 2 (1907) pp. 99-164. Reprinted in Sturtevant, A Creek Source Book.

____. "Notes on Social and Economic Conditions Among the Creek Indians of Alabama in 1941." American Indigena, v. 7 (1947) pp. 195-198. Draft manuscript and published article on this site.

____. "The Road to Disappearance: Creek Indians Surviving in Alabma, A Mixed Culture Community." (Brief Communications.) American Anthropologist, v. 51 (1949) pp. 681-682. Online here.

Spoehr, Alexander. "Changing Kinship Systems: A Study in the Acculturation of the Creeks, Cherokee, and Choctaw". Anthropological Series [Field Museum of Natural History], v. 33, no. 4 (1947), pp. 151-235. Note that this series may also be referred to as Fieldiana: Anthropology or this item cited as "Field Museum of Natural History. Publication 583".

Stock, Melissa A. "Sovereign or Suzerain: Alexander McGillivray's Argument for Creek Independence after the Treaty of Paris of 1783." Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 92 (Summer 2008), pp. 149-176.

Sturtevant, William C., ed. A Creek Source Book. New York: Garland Publishing Inc., 1987. A collection of reprinted pieces.; see individual entries in this bibliography.

____. "Notes on the Creek Hothouse," Southern Indian Studies, v. 20 (1968), pp. 3-5. Existing descriptions of Creek Council houses.

____. "Spanish-Indian Relations in Southeastern North America." Ethnohistory, v. 9 (1962), pp. 41-94. The running title on this article is "Spanish-Indian Relations in Florida". If we said "La Florida" it would be a more accurate description of the scope of this useful overview with much on the Creeks. Also reprinted in Ethnology of the Indians of Spanish Florida, (Spanish Borderlands Sourcebooks no. 8), New York: Garland Publishing, 1991, pp. 307-360.

Sugden, John. "Early Pan-Indianism: Tecumseh's Tour of the Indian Country, 1811-1812." American Indian Quarterly, v. 10 (1986), pp. 273-304.

Sullivan, Fay Ann, "The Georgia Frontier, 1754-1775." M. A. Thesis, (History), Florida State University, 1975.

Swanton, John R. Early History of the Creek Indians and Their Neighbors. (Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 73) Washington D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1922. Swanton's work remains absolutely basic to any study of the Creeks. The best source for information on the various groups within the Creek confederacy. A portion of this work was reprinted in Ethnology of the Indians of Spanish Florida, (Spanish Borderlands Sourcebooks no. 8), New York: Garland Publishing, 1991.

____. "Modern Square Grounds of the Creek Indians." Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, v. 85, no. 8. (1931), pp. 1-46 + plates. Reprinted in Sturtevant, A Creek Source Book.

____. The Indians of the Southeastern United States. (Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 137) Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1946. Extremely detailed! The non-specialist may do better to read Hudson's The Southeastern Indians (see Begin Here) first and then go to this title.

____. "Religious Beliefs and Medical Practices of the Creek Indians," IN Forty-Second Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1924-1925, pp. 473-672. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1928.

____. "Social Organization and the Social Usages of the Indians of the Creek Confederacy," IN Forty-Second Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1924-1925, pp. 279-325. Washington, D. C." Government Printing Office, 1928.

Sweet, Julie Anne. Negotiating for Georgia: British-Creek Relations in the Trustee Era, 1733-1752. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2005. A detailed study of the relationship between James Edward Oglethorpe and Yamacraw leader Tomochichi and how that relationship between cultures was nurtured.

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Tanner, Helen Hornbeck. "Pipesmoke and Muskets: Florida Indian Intrigues of the Revolutionary Era." IN: Eighteenth-Century Florida and Its Borderlands, ed. by Samuel Proctor, pp. 13-39.

Thomas, Daniel H. Fort Toulouse: The French Outpost at the Alabamas on the Coosa. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1989. Published originally in the Fall 1960 issue of the Alabama Historical Quarterly. The 1989 publication contains an introduction by Gregory Waselkov, "Recent Archaeological and Historical Research" that updates the original.

Thomason, Hugh M. "Governor Peter Early and the Creek Indian Frontier, 1813-1815." Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 45 (1961), pp. 223-237. Actions during his term as Governor of Georgia.

Thurman, Melburn D. "Seminoles, Creeks, Delawares and Shawnees: Indian Auxiliaries in the Second Seminole War, 1836-8." Florida Anthropologist, v. 30 (1977), pp. 144-165.

U - V

Vickery, Lou. The Rise of the Poarch Band of Creek Indians, revised ed. N. p., Upword Press, 2016. History and genealogy including Moniac and Rolin families.


Walker, Willard B. "Creek Confederacy Before Removal." IN Handbook of North American Indians, v. 14, Southeast, ed. by Raymond D. Fogelson. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution, 2004.

Warren, Stephen. "Race, Revitalization and Warfare in the Eighteenth-Century Southeast," Chapter 9, pp. 208-223 IN The Worlds the Shawnees Made: Migration and Violence in Early American. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2014. Describes the residence of the Shawnees among the Creek towns.

Waselkov, Gregory A., John W. Cottier, and Craig T. Sheldon. Archaeological Excavations at the Early Historic Creek Indian Town of Fusihatchee : Phase 1, 1988-1989. No place and publisher. "A report to the National Science Foundation. Grant No. BNS-8718934. May, 1990."

____. "Changing Strategies of Indian Field Location in the Early Historic Southeast." IN People, Plants, and Landscapes: Studies in Paleoethnobotany, ed. by Kristen J. Gremillion, pp. 179-194. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1997. Changes on the ground reflect social change.

____, Brian M. Wood and Joseph M. Herbert. Colonization and Conquest: The 1980 Archaeological Excavations at Fort Toulouse and Fort Jackson, Alabama. (Auburn University Archaeological Monograph 4). Montgomery, Ala.: Auburn University, 1982. Online at https://www.researchgate.net/.

____. A Conquering Spirit: Fort Mims and the Redstick War of 1813-1814. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2006. Detailed acocunt of this much written about event. With an appendix identifying 224 participants in the events of whom 14 are Redsticks.

____ and Brian M. Wood. "The Creek War of 1813-1814: Effects on Creek Society and Settlement Pattern." Journal of Alabama Archaeology, v. 32 (1986), pp. 1-24.

____ and John W. Cottier. "European Perceptions of Eastern Muskogean Ethnicity." Proceedings of the Meeting of the French Colonial Historical Society, v. 10 (1985), pp. 23-45.

____ and John W. Cottier. "The First Creek War: Twilight of Annihilation," IN Clearings in the Thicket: An Alabama Humanities Reader, ed. by Jerry Elijah Brown, Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1984 pp. 21-38. Available in Academia.edu.

____. "French Colonial Trade in the Upper Creek Country." IN Calument & Fleur-De-Lys: Archaeology of Indian and French Contact in the MidContinent, ed. by John A. Walthall and Thomas E. Emerson, pp. 35-53. Washington D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992. The Indian trade centering on Fort Toulouse from 1700 to 1763. Includes an extensive list of French terms for trade goods.

____. "Historic Creek Indian Responses to European Trade and the Rise of Political Factions." IN: Ethnohistory and Archaeology: Approaches to Postcontact Change in the Americas, ed. by J. Daniel Rogers and Samuel M. Wilson, pp. 123-131. New York: Plenum Press, 1993.

____. "The Macon Trading House and Early European-Indian Contact in the Colonial Southeast." IN: Ocmulgee Archaeology, 1936-1986, ed. by David J. Hally. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994. The Macon Trading House (dated to ca. 1690) was discovered in the 1930s by archaeologists working at what is now Ocmulgee National Monument. This article explains why it was there and uses the site as a springboard for a discussion of "Creek culture change during the early historic period." A very useful short essay.

____ and Marvin T. Smith. "Upper Creek Archaeology." IN: Indians of the Greater Southeast: Historical Archaeology and Ethnohistory, ed. by Bonnie G. McEwan, pp. 242-264. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. A review of the archaeological studies done on the talwas [towns] in the groups known as Abihkas, Alabamas, Tallapoosas, and Okfusgees. Includes maps and a bibliography.

Watson, Thomas D. "Strivings for Sovereignity: Alexander McGillivray, Creek Warfare, and Diplomacy, 1783-1790." Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 58 (1980), pp. 400-14. Online in PALMM Digital Collections.

____. "The Troubled Advance of Panton, Leslie and Company into Spanish West Florida." IN: Eighteenth-Century Florida and the Revolutionary South, ed. by Samuel Proctor, pp. 68-86.

Weir, Howard T. III. A Paradise of Blood: The Creek War of 1813�14. Yardley, Pennsylvania: Westholme Publishing, 2015. Places the Creek War in the context of Tecumseh�s fight for Native American independence and the ongoing war between the United States and European powers for control of North America.

Wesson, Cameron B. "Creek and Pre-Creek Revisited." IN: The Archaeology of Traditions: Agency and History Before and After Columbus, ed. by Timothy R. Pauketat, pp. 94-106. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001. (Note: There is one comprehensive bibliography in the book for all articles.) "This work argues that although Euro-American influence fostered changes in Creek culture, the major sources of change were the Creeks themselves."

____. "Households and Hegemony: An Analysis of Historic Creek Culture Change." Ph.D. Dissertation (Anthropology), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1997.

____. Households and Hegemony: Early Creek Prestige Goods, Symbolic Capital and Social Power. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2008.

____. "Prestige Goods, Symbolic Capital, and Social Power in the Protohistoric Southeast." IN Between Contacts and Colonies: Archaeological Perspectives on the Protohistoric Southeast, ed. by Cameron B. Wesson and Mark A. Rees. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2002, pp. 110-125. Wesson uses a comparison of data on Prohistoric settlements and Historic period Creeks to investigate the question of societal "collapse". In the process he provides a nice overview (with citations) of life in a Creek household.

White, Christine S. Now the Wolf Has Come: The Creek Nation in the Civil War. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1996.

Wickman, Patricia Riles. The Tree That Bends: Discourse, Power and the Survival of the Maskókî People. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1999. Wickman argues that the accepted notion of a totally depopulated Florida waiting in 1763 for new immigrants, whether Native American or Euroamerican is inaccurate. Instead, she says, the people now known as Creeks, Seminoles and Miccosukees share a common background and heritage which endured within the area that is now the state of Florida as well as outside it.

Willey, Gordon R. and William H. Sears. "The Kasita Site," Southern Indian Studies, v. 4 (1952), pp. 3-18. Identification of this historic period town using documentary evidence and the results of a 1938 field dig.

Willis, William S. Jr. "Patrilineal Institutions in Southeastern North America." Ethnohistory, v. 10 (1963), pp. 250-269.

Wilson, T. Paul. "Delgates of the Five Civilized Tribes to the Confederate Congress." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 53 (1975/76) pp. 353-366. Samuel Benton Callahan, who had no Indian ancestry, was the delegate for the Creeks and Seminoles. He has achieved a place in Civil War trivia since at his death in 1911 he was the last surviving member of the Confederate Congress.

Wise, Donald A. "Origin of the Place Name "Broken Arrow"." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 69 (1991/92), pp. 92-97. In Alabama and Oklahoma.

Wood, Brian see Waselkov,Gregory.

Worth, John E. The Eastern Creek Frontier: History and Archaeology of the Flint River Towns, ca. 1750-1826. Paper presented in the symposium "Recent Advances in Lower Creek Archaeology" at the annual conference of the Society for American Archaeology, Nashville, April 4,1997. Available online at https://www.academia.edu/2096963/The_Eastern_Creek_Frontier_History_and_Archaeology_of_the_Flint_River_Towns_ca_1750_1826?email_work_card=view-paper.

____. "The Lower Creeks: Origins and Early History." IN: Indians of the Greater Southeast: Historical Archaeology and Ethnohistory, ed. by Bonnie G. McEwan, pp. 265-298. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. Includes maps and a bibliography.

Wright, Amos J. Jr. Historic Indian Towns in Alabama, 1540-1838. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2003. Analpabetic list of 398 towns with basic information for each gleaned from early documents and maps. A starting point for further research.

Wright, J. Leitch. See also Section 1.

____. Britain and the American Frontier, 1783-1815. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1975.

____. "Creek-American Treaty of 1790: Alexander McGillivrary and the Diplomacy of the Old Southwest." Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 51 (1967), pp. 379-400.

____. William Augustus Bowles, Director General of the Creek Nation. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1967.

Wright Muriel H.. See Section 1.


Young, Mary Elizabeth. "The Creek Frauds: A Study in Conscience and Corruption." Mississippi Valley Historical Review, v. 52 (1955), pp. 411-437.

____. Redskins, Ruffleshirts and Rednecks: Indian Allotments in Alabama and Mississippi, 1830-1860. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1961.

Zellar, Gary. African Creeks: Estelvste and the Creek Nation. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007. A history of Creeks of African descent, Estelvste or black people, from the 16th century to the 20th.

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